Usefulness of PAX8 Immunohistochemistry in Adult Intraocular Tumor Diagnosis
Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Tatyana Milman, Ralph C. Eagle Jr., Tracy Sanderson, Leanne Pheasey, Simon Paine, Sachin Salvi, Ian G. Rennie, Paul Rundle, Carol L. Shields, Jerry A. ShieldsRead More
To evaluate the distribution of the PAX8 transcription factor protein in ocular tissues and to investigate if immunohistochemical stains for this biomarker are useful in the diagnosis of intraocular tumors.
Observational case series.
Excision and cytologic analysis specimens of 6 ciliary body epithelial neoplasms, 2 iris epithelial neoplasms, 3 retinal pigment epithelial neoplasms, 3 intraocular medulloepitheliomas, 15 uveal melanomas, and 5 uveal melanocytomas.
Hematoxylin–eosin and PAX8 immunohistochemical stains were performed on all specimens. In appropriate cases, bleached preparations and other immunohistochemical stains, including AE1/AE3 cytokeratin, Lin28A, and CD45, were performed.
Main Outcome Measures
Distribution of PAX8 expression in normal and neoplastic tissue.
Strong nuclear PAX8 expression was observed in the normal corneal epithelium, iris sphincter pupillae muscle, iris pigment epithelium and dilator muscle complex, nonpigmented and pigmented epithelia of the ciliary body, lens epithelium, and a subset of retinal neurons. The normal retinal pigment epithelium and uveal melanocytes did not stain for PAX8. The ciliary body epithelial and neuroepithelial tumors (adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and medulloepithelioma) showed uniform strong nuclear PAX8 immunoreactivity. All melanocytic tumors (iris melanoma, ciliary–choroidal melanoma, and melanocytoma) and retinal pigment epithelial neoplasms showed negative results for PAX8. A subset of tumor-associated lymphocytes, most prominent in uveal melanoma, showed positive results for PAX8. The uniformity of the PAX8 staining was superior to the variable cytokeratin staining in the ciliary epithelial neoplasms and the variable Lin28A staining in malignant medulloepithelioma. The veracity of PAX8 staining was equally as robust on cytologic analysis and open-flap biopsy specimens of ciliary epithelial and iris epithelial neoplasms, melanocytoma, and melanoma.
PAX8 has proven to be a very useful diagnostic marker in a select group of adult intraocular tumors, and we highly recommend its inclusion in diagnostic antibody panels of morphologically challenging intraocular neoplasms.