Grace Mwangi, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon
Background Poor outcomes of trichiasis surgery, including postoperative trichiasis, are common in many trachoma-endemic countries in Africa. To improve outcomes, WHO recommends regular follow-up and outcome assessment of surgical cases plus audit of trichiasis surgeons.
Aims To assess national approaches to trichiasis surgical follow-up, outcome assessment and audit, and identify national targets for good surgical outcome (defined as the percentage of patients undergoing surgery for trichiasis remaining free of post-operative trichiasis for a defined interval after surgery).
Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between May and July 2018, involving all 29 known-trachoma-endemic countries in Africa. An emailed questionnaire was used to collect information on national targets for surgical outcomes, policies, monitoring and strategies to address underperformance by surgeons.
Results All national programmes provided information; 2 of the 29 had not yet implemented trichiasis surgery as part of their trachoma elimination programme. Findings from 27 countries are therefore reported. Only four countries reported having a national policy for trichiasis surgery follow-up and outcome assessment and only two had a national policy for conducting audits of trichiasis surgeons. Only 9 of the 27 countries had a cut-off point at which poorly performing surgeons would be instructed to discontinue surgery until retraining or other interventions had been undertaken.
Discussion To address the challenge of post-operative trichiasis and other poor outcomes, national trachoma programmes should create and implement policies and systems to follow up patients, assess surgical outcomes and monitor the performance of individual surgeons through post-surgical audits.
Inbal Avisar, Yoav Nahum, Michael Mimouni, Israel Kremer, Raman Malhotra
The normal structure and function of the eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctival fornices, and lacrimal system are essential for the health of the ocular surface, and abnormalities of these structures accompany many cases of ocular surface disease. We describe the role of oculoplastic intervention in the context of ocular surface disease, focusing on blink disorders, lagophthalmos, entropion, lid scarring and keratinization, trichiasis, and punctal and lacrimal sac disease.
Sushrut S Dongargaonkar, Surendra P Wadgaonkar, Preeti A Patil, Suhas V Dongargaonkar, Vasudha S Dongargaonkar, Sanjay Waghmare
Two patients presented with a complaint of cosmetic blemish over their left eyelid. On slit lamp, we found a completely subcutaneously erupting and coursing eyelash. As per the request of a patient, it was removed. The other patient was lost to follow up [Figure 1]…..
Joganathan, Varajini; Norris, Jonathan H.
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy has been increasingly employed in the treatment of a variety of tumors. The authors report the rarely documented side effect of trichiasis with the use of Afatinib in a patient with spinal chordoma and review-related literature. A 67-year-old lady was referred to the oculoplastic service with a 3-month history of ocular irritation and pain associated with blurred vision. She has a 4-year history of spinal chordoma treated with daily Afatinib 50 mg over the past 6 months. Clinical examination revealed trichomegaly and trichiasis affecting all 4 eyelids associated with blepharitis, conjunctival, and corneal abrasion on fluorescein staining. Hypertrichosis of the eyebrow bilaterally was also present. Afatinib and other epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor–associated changes to eyelash and eyebrow hair is a result of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway activation in keratinocytes results in remodeling of the hair follicle. This results in the variation in the severity of clinical presentation of trichiasis.
Cruz, Antonio A. V., M.D.; Garcez, Cecilia, M.D.; Duarte, Ana, M.D.; Akaishi, Patricia M. S., M.D.
Purpose: To evaluate the use of autogenous tarsal graft for surgical correction of lower eyelid trichiasis associated with eyelid thinning.
Methods: A total of 23 eyelids of 19 consecutive patients with trichiasis were operated with a variant of the Van Millingen procedure. The surgery consisted of interposing a 3-mm high fragment of autogenous ipsilateral upper eyelid tarsus corresponding to the trichiasis segment between the pretarsal anterior lamella and the lower tarsal plate. Preoperative assessment included quantification of eyelid thickness on the midpoint of the segment with trichiasis, biomicroscopy of the eyelid margin and location of the trichiasis. All patients were examined at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Eyelid thickness was measured at 1 month and 12 months of follow up.
Results: Preoperatively the mean thickness of the eyelid margin was 0.99 mm ± 0.06 standard error. One month postoperatively eyelid thickness increased to 2.08 ± 0.28 standard error, decreasing over time to reach 1. 48 mm ± 0.18 standard error 1 year after surgery, a value that did not differ from that of the control group. Small granulomas were diagnosed only in the early phases of the postoperative period. Trichiasis recurrence was seen in just 1 eyelid. Isolated abnormal lashes lateral or medial to the graft were present in 5 eyelids at the end of the study.
Conclusions: Autogenous tarsal grafts placed parallel to the lower tarsus are a good option both to correct misdirected eyelashes and to restore normal lower eyelid thickness.
Reshef, Edith R.; Wolkow, Natalie; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Yoon, Michael K.
Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre with ophthalmic findings has been previously described in the literature on numerous occasions. A 57-year-old woman presented with focal trichiasis secondary to tarsal thinning, adjacent to a linear brow and forehead deformity consistent with linear scleroderma en coup de sabre. Cases of linear scleroderma en coup de sabre involving the eyelids have been reported, most often with madarosis, ptosis, or skin atrophy; however, to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of linear scleroderma associated with trichiasis and involvement of the deeper eyelid tissues, particularly the tarsus.
Scofield-Kaplan, Stacy, M., M.D.; Dunbar, Kristen, E., M.D.; Campbell, Ashley, A., M.D.; Kazim, Michael, M.D.
Purpose: To describe the use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) device in the management of complex oculoplastic pathology.
Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of individuals over 18 years of age who were referred and successfully fit with the PROSE scleral device between January 1995 and June 2015.
Results: Nine cases were identified that had complex oculoplastic disease and severe corneal surface disease. All patients with ptosis had improvement in marginal reflex distance-1 following PROSE and 5 of 7 patients with ptosis were spared further surgical intervention. Two underwent surgical repair with successful corneal stabilization with PROSE. Those with eyelid malposition including ectropion, entropion, or trichiasis experienced improvement in their corneal surface and deferred further surgical intervention.
Conclusions: These cases highlight the use of the PROSE device to elevate the upper eyelid in patients with lagophthalmos and ptosis, stabilize the corneal surface to allow for additional eyelid surgery to be performed safely, and protect the corneal surface in patients with intractable trichiasis and entropion. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem should be considered in patients with complex oculoplastic pathology to improve visual function, corneal surface disease, and eyelid position.
Lucieni CB Ferraz, Roberta LRS Meneghim, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Ana CV Wanzeler, Michelli M. Saruwatari, Larissa H. Satto, Carlos R. Padovani & Silvana A. Schellini
The purpose of this article is to analyze the outcomes of two surgical techniques to treat major trichiasis. A retrospective chart review of 67 patients (89 eyelids) with major trichiasis was performed who underwent surgical treatment using one of two techniques: intermarginal split lamella with graft (ISLG group) or lid lamella resection (LLR group). There were 30 lids in the ISLG group with mean patient age of 71.8 years and 63.3% were females. There were 59 lids in the LLR group with mean patient age of 72.5 years and 52.5% were female. The minimum postoperative follow up was six months. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures, Goodman association test for contrasts between and within multinomial populations and nonparametric Mann–Whitney test for comparison between groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The underlying causes of trichiasis were blepharitis (37.07%), chronic meibomitis (21.3%), multiple causes (20.2%), ectropion (11.2%), actinic keratosis (6.7%), or prior ocular surgery (3.3%). Postoperatively, in the ISLG group, there were 20% lids with complete success, 50% underwent laser or electrolysis, 16.7% required further surgery, and 13.3% were unsuccessful. Postoperatively, in the LLR group, there were 47.5% eyelids with complete success, 46.7% underwent laser or electrolysis, 6.8% required further surgery, and 5.1% were unsuccessful. There was a higher statistical chance of complete success with LLR (P < 0.05). LLR is superior to ISLG surgery for the treatment of major trichiasis. There is a greater chance of success with LLR and it is technically simpler.
Hind Manaa Alkatan, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Azza Maktabi, Alberto Galvez-Ruiz, Silvana Schellini
Distichiasis is a condition clinically presenting as partial or complete accessory row of lashes that emerges from the meibomian glands orifices. It can be an acquired or congenital with an autosomal dominant inheritance. The histopathological features are not well described in the ophthalmic literature, however they include abnormal pilosebaceous units within the posterior lamella of the eyelid and perifollicular chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. In this report, we describe the histopathological findings of three congenital distichiasis cases treated at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with discussion on the pathogenesis of such a condition and the differentiating features from ectopic cilia.