Curtis J Heisel, Megan M Tuohy , Alixandra L Riddering, Cuilee Sha, Alon Kahana
To test whether intraoperative stereotactic navigation during orbital decompression surgery resulted in quantifiable surgical benefit.
This retrospective cohort study examined all consecutive patients who underwent primary orbital decompression surgery for thyroid associated orbitopathy performed by a single surgeon (A.K.) during the periods of 2012–2014 (non-navigated), and 2017–2018 (navigated). The study was HIPAA-compliant, was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and adhered to the tenets of the Helsinki declaration. Recorded parameters included patient age, sex, race, decompression technique (side of operation and walls decompressed), estimated blood loss (EBL), intraoperative complications, times that patient entered and exited the operating room (OR), times of surgical incision and dressing completion, pre- and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), proptosis, diplopia, postoperative change in strabismus deviation, and need for subsequent strabismus surgery. Recorded times were used to calculate operating time (initial incision to dressing) and maintenance time (time between OR entry and initial incision and time between dressings and OR exit). The total maintenance time was averaged over total number of operations. Student t test was used to compare surgical times, maintenance times, EBL, and proptosis reduction. Fisher exact test was used to compare BCVA change, strabismus deviation change, resolution or onset of diplopia, and need for corrective strabismus surgery.
Twenty-two patients underwent primary orbital decompression surgery without navigation, and 23 patients underwent navigation-guided primary orbital decompression surgery. There were no intraoperative complications in either group. The average operative time was shorter in the navigated group for a unilateral balanced decompression (n = 10 vs. 19; 125.8 ± 13.6 vs. 141.3 ± 19.4 min; p-value = 0.019), and a unilateral lateral wall only decompression (n = 13 vs. 3; 80.5 ± 12.8 vs. 93.0 ± 6.1 min; p-value = 0.041). The average maintenance time per surgery was not significantly different between the non-navigated group (51.3 ± 12.7 min) and the navigated group (50.5 ± 6.4 min). There was no significant difference between the navigated and non-navigated groups in average EBL per surgery. There was no significant difference in BCVA change. Average proptosis reduction was larger in the navigated group, but this was not significant. There was a significantly lower proportion of patients who required corrective strabismus surgery following decompression in the navigated group than in the non-navigated group (39.1% vs. 77.3%, p-value = 0.012).
Intraoperative stereotactic navigation during orbital decompression surgery has the potential to provide the surgeon with superior spatial awareness to improve patient outcomes. This study found that use of intraoperative navigation reduced operative time (even without factoring in a resident teaching component) while also reducing the need for subsequent strabismus surgery. This study is limited by its size but illustrates that use of intraoperative navigation guidance has substantive benefits in orbital decompression surgery.
Nasser Karimi, Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli, Mostafa Soltan Sanjari, Hamed Sianati, Maria Sharepour, Hadi Ali
To report a case of inadvertent inferior oblique extirpation during orbital decompression, its management, and postoperative result.
A 38-year-old female with thyroid eye disease underwent cosmetic right orbital decompression during which inferior oblique extirpation was noticed.
The muscle was repaired on the same session (illustrated in the article) with no postoperative diplopia at 3-month follow-up.
Inferior oblique injury should be considered among the uncommon yet important complications of orbital decompression. It can be easily found and repaired in the same session as demonstrated in this case report.
Ramesh, Sathyadeepak; Nobori, Alexander; Wang, Yi; Rootman, Daniel; Goldberg, Robert Alan
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the orbit expands in the cranial vault after wide dural exposure after minimally invasive extradural transorbital decompression for thyroid eye disease.
Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study of 36 patients (60 orbits). Preoperative and postoperative (6 months) orbital CT following extradural transorbital decompression was analyzed. Primary outcome measure was the percentage area of the cranial vault occupied by orbital and brain tissue in a predefined window before and after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were displacement of the anteriormost aspect of the temporal lobe, reduction in clinical proptosis, change in clinical activity score, and change in diplopia.
Results: The mean percentage of the selected area of the cranial vault preoperatively was 0% orbital and 44% ± 15% brain tissue, compared with 70% ± 16% orbital and 28% ± 14% brain tissue postoperatively (p < 0.001). Posterior movement of the brain was demonstrated in 59 of 60 orbits, with a mean displacement of 2.0 mm ± 1.3 mm (p < 0.001). Mean proptosis reduction was 11.2 mm ± 3.6 mm (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with clinical activity score <3 compared with clinical activity score ≥3 was not significantly different after surgery (p = 0.163). Improved diplopia was noted in 5 patients (14%), and worsening diplopia was noted in 3 patients (8%), although these changes were not significant (p = 0.772). Intraoperative dural tear with cerebrospinal fluid leak was reported in 2 orbits (3%), which was successfully managed with fibrin glue, with no sequelae. No other complications were noted, including infection, spontaneous orbital pulsations, postoperative hemorrhage (intracranial or intraorbital), or reactivation of disease.
Conclusion: With wide exposure of the middle cranial fossa dura following extradural transorbital decompression, orbital tissue typically expands in the cranial vault.
Andrea A. Tooley, Kyle J. Godfrey & Michael Kazim
Orbital decompression surgery and medical therapy for thyroid eye disease (TED) have evolved over the past 150 years and afforded the opportunity to restore pre-disease appearance and visual function. This manuscript explores the past 150 years of surgical innovation for the treatment of TED. The “Age of Surgical Heroism” spans the time from 1888 to 1979 during which the pioneers of orbital decompression developed lateral orbitotomy, transcranial decompression, paranasal sinus decompression, and transantral decompression despite an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of both TED and a limited ability to non-invasively assess their patients. The “Age of Surgical Refinement” dawned with the development of computed tomography and represents the years 1979–2000. During this time, the “swinging eyelid” approach for two- and three-wall decompressions was introduced, a combined orbital-extradural four wall decompression procedure was developed, fat decompression was explored, and endoscopic decompression techniques were advanced. At the beginning of the 21st century, our understanding of the orbital pathophysiology of TED evolved significantly. Clinicians recognized the age-related phenotype of TED based largely on the relative contribution of extraocular muscle enlargement vs. orbital fat expansion. The “Modern Age” of Customized Orbital Decompression features both “medical decompression” during the active phase of TED and, in the stable phase, customized surgical plans incorporating individual patients’ anatomy, orbital pathology, and surgical goals that collectively maximize therapeutic benefit while minimizing therapeutic morbidity.
Ramesh, Sathyadeepak; Eichhorn, Knut; Leibowitz, Steven; Goldberg, Robert
Purpose: To report on 2 cases of late bony regrowth with clinically apparent proptosis after deep lateral orbital decompression for thyroid orbitopathy.
Methods: A retrospective review of 2 cases identified by the authors as having late bony regrowth. The authors review the clinical, historical, radiologic, and anatomical findings and discuss the significance thereof.
Results: Bony regrowth with bowing toward the middle cranial fossa is observed at postoperative month 8 in the first case. Cortical bone and marrow was observed to regrow at 2 years postoperatively in the second case. Both patients underwent successful repeat deep lateral orbital decompression with resolution of proptosis and clinical symptoms.
Conclusions: Late bony regrowth should be considered as a possible cause of recurrent proptosis after orbital decompression in thyroid eye disease.
Michael P. Ellis, Emily C. Broxterman, Alan R. Hromas, Thomas J. Whittaker & Jason A. Sokol
Purpose: Surgical management of ophthalmic Graves’ disease traditionally involves, in order, orbital decompression, followed by strabismus surgery and eyelid surgery. Nunery et al. previously described two distinct sub-types of patients with ophthalmic Graves’ disease; Type I patients exhibit no restrictive myopathy (no diplopia) as opposed to Type II patients who do exhibit restrictive myopathy (diplopia) and are far more likely to develop new-onset worsening diplopia following medial wall and floor decompression. Strabismus surgery involving extra-ocular muscle recession has, in turn, been shown to potentially worsen proptosis. Our experience with Type II patients who have already undergone medial wall and floor decompression and strabismus surgery found, when additional decompression is necessary, deep lateral wall decompression (DLWD) appears to have a low rate of post-operative primary-gaze diplopia.
Methods: A case series of four Type II ophthalmic Graves’ disease patients, all of whom had already undergone decompression and strabismus surgery, and went on to develop worsening proptosis or optic nerve compression necessitating further decompression thereafter. In all cases, patients were treated with DLWD. Institutional Review Board approval was granted by the University of Kansas.
Results: None of the four patients treated with this approach developed recurrent primary-gaze diplopia or required strabismus surgery following DLWD.
Conclusions: While we still prefer to perform medial wall and floor decompression as the initial treatment for ophthalmic Graves’ disease, for proptosis following consecutive strabismus surgery, DLWD appears to be effective with a low rate of recurrent primary-gaze diplopia.
Andrew L. Reynolds, Monte A. Del Monte, Steven M. Archer
Statins, known to possess anti-inflammatory characteristics, have recently been identified as potentially reducing the risk of developing thyroid eye disease (TED) in Graves disease patients. The current study investigates the effect of oral statin therapy on strabismus related to TED.
This is a retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of both TED and restrictive strabismus. Oral statin users and nonusers were analyzed for smoking status, previous radioactive iodine, thyroidectomy, number of decompressions, motility restriction, amount of strabismus, number of surgeries, surgical dose, and number of muscles involved on radiography.
Thirty patients (average age, 63.9 years; 50% male; 59% current/former smokers) were included: 12 statin users and 18 nonusers. Statin users averaged fewer decompressions (1.3 in users vs 2.4 in nonusers [P = 0.04]). Statin users on average had 15 mm of total strabismus surgery compared with 21.4 mm in the nonuser group (P = 0.09) and had fewer muscles involved radiographically (4.3 vs 5.1 [P = 0.08])
Compared to nonusers, statin users tended to have fewer decompressions, less restriction, fewer surgeries, and fewer muscles involved despite having more current smokers (36% vs 5%), more males, more RAI, and fewer thyroidectomies, all of which are associated with worse TED. In our cohort of patients with TED and strabismus, statin therapy significantly reduced the number of orbital decompressions. Oral statin therapy also trended toward reducing the number and amount of strabismus surgeries as well as radiographic indication of muscle involvement, although these did not meet statistical significance.
Francesco P Bernardini, MD; Brent Skippen, MD, FRANZCO; Alessandra Zambelli, MD; Benjamin Riesco, MD; Martin H Devoto, MD
Aesthetic rehabilitation of thyroid orbitopathy includes orbital decompression, correction of eyelid retraction, and aesthetic blepharoplasty, performed traditionally in separate stages.
To report the results of orbital decompression surgery associated with aesthetic eyelid surgery in one stage for aesthetic rehabilitation of patients affected by thyroid eye disease.
Retrospective, multicentric study including 40 consecutive patients, who underwent orbital decompression surgery associated with aesthetic eyelid surgery in two centers: Genova (group 1) + Buenos Aires (group 2). Surgical techniques are described in detail.
Mean patient age in the study group was 41.2, 85% of the patients were female, and minimum follow-up time was 12 months, with average follow up of 27 months. All patients underwent orbital decompression; at the same time, 26 patients (65%) underwent bilateral upper blepharoplasty and 32 patients (80%) underwent transconjunctival lower blepharoplasty. Associated upper eyelid procedures included 23 patients (58%) undergoing upper eyelid retraction repair, 9 patients (23%) undergoing associated inferior retractor recession, and 12 patients (30%) closed transcanthal lateral canthopexy. Seven patients (17%) needed strabismus surgery for the treatment of new-onset diplopia and none required further revision eyelid surgery.
Shorr and Seiff suggested 4 stages of surgical rehabilitation: (1) orbital decompression; (2) eye muscle surgery; (3) correction of eyelid retraction; and (4) removal of excess fat and skin. This is the first study to suggest single-stage aesthetic rehabilitation consisting of combined orbital decompression and aesthetic eyelid surgery. This approach has high patient satisfaction and significant reduction in direct and indirect healthcare costs.
Raymond S Douglas, MD, PhD
The authors raise several fascinating points reflecting current state of the art techniques in single-stage surgery. First, surgery for patients with TED should be considered aesthetic reconstructive surgery. The impact physical and anatomical facial changes of the TED profoundly impact…
Shani Golan & Robert A. Goldberg
Introduction: Double vision after decompression surgery for Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) is well described in the literature and the incidence ranges from 0 to 64%. The Mechanisms for new onset diplopia after orbital decompression are poorly understood. Common theories include: Fibrosis of muscles, displacement of the muscle cone, and reactivation of the TED.
Aim: We present two cases with Abducens nerve palsy after uncomplicated secondary orbital decompression surgery.
Results: Two patients with inactive TED, who were followed for an average of 2 years prior to uneventful secondary decompression surgery, presented at the first postoperative visit with double vision and limitation of abduction in the recently operated eye. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) was done in both cases and revealed no abnormal bleeding or scaring.
Discussion: Our two cases of Abducens palsy following reoperative orbital decompression may be due to ischemic neuropathy caused by postoperative hemorrhage or inflammation.