David Somsen, Gena Heidary
Orbital cellulitis is extremely uncommon following strabismus surgery. When it occurs, the infection has been reported to present from day 1 to within 1 week following surgery and has the potential for significant morbidity. We report the case of a 6.5-year-old boy presenting with unilateral orbital cellulitis growing group A Streptococcus pyogenes on postoperative day 1, after uncomplicated bilateral medial rectus recessions. The patient had two contacts with streptococcal pharyngitis at the time of surgery but was completely asymptomatic himself. We hypothesize that these contacts may have led to the rapid onset of his orbital cellulitis.
Ido D. Fabian, Andrew W. Stacey, Zishan Naeem, Zerrin Onadim, Tanzina Chowdhury, Catriona Duncan, Mandeep S. Sagoo, M. Ashwin Reddy
To report the long-term strabismus rate in salvaged retinoblastoma (Rb) patients and investigate possible risk factors leading to strabismus.
The medical records of patients with Rb presenting at a single institution over a 9-year period were reviewed retrospectively with regard to ocular alignment outcomes after long-term follow-up.
A total of 64 eyes of 42 patients (22 bilateral cases [52%]) were included, presenting with International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (IIRC) in the worse eye as follows: group A (n = 1), B (n = 16), C (n = 12), D (n = 11), no Rb (n = 2). Fifteen patients (36%) were initially referred because of family history of Rb. Mean age at presentation was 8.2 months (range, 0.3-58.3 months). Overall treatments included intravenous chemotherapy (62 eyes), intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy (10 eyes), brachytherapy (11 eyes), transpupillary thermotherapy (22 eyes), cryotherapy (47 eyes), and external beam radiotherapy (4 eyes). At final follow-up (mean, 93.7 months), 69% of patients had strabismus, with exotropia being the most common type (n = 18), followed by esotropia (n = 8), and alternate exotropia/esotropia (n = 3). On univariate analysis, the worse eye group IIRC and cTNMH, sporadic cases, strabismus, and foveal tumor at presentation were found to be significantly associated with strabismus at final follow-up (P ≤ 0.043). On multivariate analysis, only foveal involvement was found to be significant (P < 0.001).
Strabismus, exotropia in particular, is a common adverse sequela following successful conservative treatment for Rb, with 69% of the present cohort having some type of deviation after long-term follow-up, for which foveal tumor at presentation was found to be a significant risk factor.
Revere, Karen E.; Binenbaum, Gil; Li, Jonathan; Mills, Monte D.; Katowitz, William R.; Katowitz, James A.
Purpose: The authors sought to compare the clinical outcomes of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery in children.
Methods: Retrospective, single-center cohort study of children requiring both ptosis and strabismus surgery on the same eye. Simultaneous surgeries were performed during a single anesthetic event; sequential surgeries were performed at least 7 weeks apart. Outcomes were ptosis surgery success (margin reflex distance 1 ≥ 2 mm, good eyelid contour, and good eyelid crease); strabismus surgery success (ocular alignment within 10 prism diopters of orthophoria and/or improved head position); surgical complications; and reoperations.
Results: Fifty-six children were studied, 38 had simultaneous surgery and 18 sequential. Strabismus surgery was performed first in 38/38 simultaneous and 6/18 sequential cases. Mean age at first surgery was 64 months, with mean follow up 27 months. A total of 75% of children had congenital ptosis; 64% had comitant strabismus. A majority of ptosis surgeries were frontalis sling (59%) or Fasanella-Servat (30%) procedures. There were no significant differences between simultaneous and sequential groups with regards to surgical success rates, complications, or reoperations (all p > 0.28).
Conclusions: In the first comparative study of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery, no advantage for sequential surgery was seen. Despite a theoretical risk of postoperative eyelid malposition or complications when surgeries were performed in a combined manner, the rate of such outcomes was not increased with simultaneous surgeries. Performing ptosis and strabismus surgery together appears to be clinically effective and safe, and reduces anesthesia exposure during childhood.
Eric Weldy, BS, Natalie C. Kerr, MD
Rectus muscle restriction is a common finding in thyroid eye disease (TED). Typically, restricted muscles are recessed to address strabismus and diplopia. However, some patients have residual strabismus following maximal recession of a restricted muscle. The purpose of this study was to report outcomes following resection of the lateral rectus muscle after maximal recession of the medial rectus muscle in patients with TED.
The medical records of patients with TED who underwent lateral rectus resection between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Information regarding thyroid disease history and surgical treatment, including history of orbital decompressions, rectus muscle recessions, rectus muscle resections, and pre- and postoperative alignment was collected. Adjustable suture was used in all cases. Success was defined as a postoperative orthotropia with ≤2Δ of phoria at distance and a phoria at near.
A total of 11 patients were included. Of these, 10 (91%) required postoperative adjustment. A successful outcome was achieved in 10 cases (91%).
Shatha H. Alfreihi, MD, Stacy L. Pineles, MD, Tara A. McCannel, MD, PhD, Angelica M. Prada, MD, Federico G. Velez, MD’
To characterize intraoperative findings, surgical approach, and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing strabismus surgery following plaque brachytherapy for ocular melanoma.
The records of all patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma between May 2007 and June 2016 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those who subsequently required strabismus surgery.
Of the 461 patients who underwent plaque brachytherapy during the study period, 13 (2.8%) met inclusion criteria. Visual acuity of the affected eye was 20/40 or better in 9 patients (69%). Preoperative horizontal deviation ranged from 0Δ to 52Δ; vertical deviation, from 2Δ to 25Δ. At final follow-up mean horizontal deviation ranged from 0 to 4Δ; vertical deviation, from 0Δ to 12Δ. Intraoperatively, all muscles directly adjacent to the treated area appeared macroscopically thicker than normal despite being functionally underacting. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlarged muscles adjacent to the plaque radiotherapy. Microscopic examination of muscles in 2 patients showed reactive enlargement of the muscle fibers, granulation tissue, and inflammation.
Persistent strabismus after plaque brachytherapy is rare. Typical findings include enlarged, underacting rectus muscles adjacent to the area of the plaque, restrictive connective tissue, and incomitant strabismus. Previously disinserted muscles may be found in abnormal locations. In this patient cohort scar tissue removal in conjunction with tightening procedures on the muscle adjacent to the plaque combined with recession of the antagonist muscle frequently resulted in good anatomical outcome.
Rootman, Daniel B.; Golan, Shani; Pavlovich, Peter; Rootman, Jack
Introduction: Surgical rehabilitation of thyroid orbitopathy involves reducing proptosis, treating strabismus, lengthening the eyelids, and managing aesthetic changes. Not all are necessary in each patient; however, they often are. The current investigation intends to describe postdecompression changes that may influence the staging of these procedures.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, records of 169 patients who underwent orbital decompression between 1983 and 2001 were reviewed. A single orbital specialist confirmed all measurements. Time to follow up was defined as the most recent follow up after decompression and prior to any secondary procedures. No strabismus or eyelid surgery was performed at the time of decompression. Strabismus was measured with alternating prism cover test. Ductions were estimated utilizing Hirschberg’s method. Exophthalmometry was measured with Hertel. Eyelid positions were defined relative to the pupillary light reflex. Strabismus data were analyzed within eye pairs. Ductions, exophthalmometry and eyelid position were analyzed for each eye. T-test for paired data was utilized to compare means pre- and postoperatively.
Results: The study population was on average 45 years old and 73.4% women. Average length of follow up was 1.2 years. Esotropia was significantly increased after decompression by an average of 8.1 prism diopters (p < 0.01). Exotropia and vertical deviations were not significantly altered. Ductions decreased by >5 degrees in at least one meridian for 68.1% of the population. Upper eyelid retraction remained unchanged; however, lower eyelid retraction improved by 50% from 1.4 mm to 0.7 mm (p < 0.01). Exophthalmometry improved from 23.5 mm to 19.7 mm (p < 0.01), and this result was correlated with the number of walls removed (Pearson r = −0.302, p < 0.01).
Conclusions: On average, esotropia and ductions tend to worsen with decompression surgery. This result supports the clinical dictum to avoid strabismus surgery until after decompression. The improvement in lower eyelid retraction suggests that at least lower eyelid-lengthening surgery should be reserved for after decompression, as there may be significant spontaneous improvement, while the same may not be true for upper eyelid retraction, which does not tend to change with decompression.
Ofira Zloto, Guy Ben Simon, Ido Didi Fabian, Oded Sagiv, Ruth Huna-Baron, Itay Ben Zion, Tamara Wygnanski-Jaffe
To examine the association of orbital decompression and the characteristics and outcome of subsequent strabismus surgery in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED).
Data on patients with TED who underwent orbital decompression at the Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Israel, between January 1990 to December 2011 were extracted. The characteristics of decompression and strabismus surgeries were recorded. The outcomes and association of both surgical procedures were analyzed. Statistical analysis included distribution, Pearson correlation, and matched paired tests.
145 eyes underwent orbital decompression, of which 45 eyes (31.0%) underwent strabismus surgery. Esotropia developed in 70% of the patients. Men and smokers underwent strabismus surgeries after decompression procedures more frequently than women and nonsmokers (χ2 test, p = 0.07, 0.002). Moreover, patients who complained of diplopia before the decompression surgery underwent strabismus surgery more frequently (χ2test, p = 0.005). Seventy-seven percent of the patients who underwent medial wall decompression developed esotropia (χ2 test, p = 0.004).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series in the literature examining the association between decompression and strabismus surgeries. The patients’ characteristics and the orbital walls involved in the decompression procedures are associated with the characteristics of subsequent strabismus that develops thereafter. These findings may have significant implications in planning TED management.
Chris Y. Wu & Alon Kahana
Geriatric patients (age ≥ 65) are prone to complications after surgery and are at risk for severe thyroid eye disease (TED). In this study, we aim to identify preoperative demographic and TED patterns associated with geriatric patients who underwent decompression surgery, to examine the effect of age on postoperative strabismus rates, and to identify factors that may contribute to postoperative strabismus in the geriatric subgroup. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent thyroid-related orbital decompression surgery at the Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, between 1999 and 2014. Primary outcome was postoperative strabismus requiring palliation with prisms and/or strabismus surgery. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to define association of geriatric age with postoperative strabismus and determine predictors of postoperative strabismus. Of 241 patients, 41 (17.0%) were geriatric. They were less likely to undergo bilateral decompression (P = 0.012), less likely to be current smokers at time of decompression (P = 0.002), and more likely to have preoperative primary gaze diplopia (P = 0.001). Postoperative strabismus rates for geriatric patients (≥ 65 years of age), ages 50–65, 30–50, and < 30, were 73.2%, 41.3%, 31.9%, and 15.8%, respectively (P = 0.002). On multivariable analysis, geriatric age remained an independent risk factor for postoperative strabismus when compared to each age group (P ≤ 0.001). Among geriatric patients in subgroup multivariable analysis, balanced as opposed to lateral wall decompression (P = 0.038) and shorter TED duration (P = 0.031) were independently predictive of postoperative strabismus.