Shay Keren, Avraham Abergel, Amir Manor, Amir Rosenblatt, Dvir Koenigstein, Igal Leibovitch & Ran Ben Cnaan
Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a widely performed and safe procedure for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction manifested as epiphora or dacryocystitis. Current success rates are above 90%. Data on causes for failure of the procedure are sparse. We investigated the influence of several preoperative parameters on surgery outcome and to establish that parameters are linked with failure.
A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic DCR in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center, a tertiary referral center, between January 2010 and August 2016 were retrospectively examined and data on the occurrence of surgical failure and reasons for failure were retrieved.
A total of 165 patients (183 eyes) were included. The overall success rate for the surgery was 94.7%. The parameters that correlated significantly with failure were coexisting diabetes mellitus (P = 0.037), allergy to medications (P = 0.034), and prior ocular surgery (P = 0.043). There was no correlation between the surgical failure rates and facial trauma, previous nasal or lacrimal surgery, or the usage of a stent.
Endoscopic DCR is a safe and effective surgical procedure. Diabetes mellitus, allergies, and previous ocular surgery may lead to surgical failure. Patients with these risk factors should be aware of increased failure rates.
Grossman, Jennifer L.; Djenderedjian, Levon; Xia, Rong; Shinder, Roman
A 5-year-old male presented with 3 weeks of right eye tearing and medial canthus crusting. He was otherwise healthy with no recent fever, history of similar episodes, history of childhood tearing, sick contacts, upper respiratory infection, or trauma. On exam, there was nontender edema of the right medial upper and lower eyelid in the area of the canaliculi and pouting puncta that displayed mucopurulent discharge on gentle pressure (Fig. A). Upper and lower canaliculitis was suspected and canaliculotomy was recommended, but the parents elected to first try topical antibiotics that failed to show clinical improvement over a two-week period. The child was subsequently brought to the operating room where a punctal-sparing superior and inferior canaliculotomy was carried out and multiple yellow concretions were retrieved (Fig. B). Intraoperative lacrimal irrigation also proved the child to have a complete nasolacrimal duct obstruction for which probing and bicanalicular stenting was performed. Histopathologic assessment of the concretions after Gram staining revealed a branching network of Gram-positive filamentous rods consistent with actinomyces (Fig. C). The clinical and histologic findings confirmed a diagnosis of upper and lower canaliculitis with simultaneous nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The patient’s symptoms resolved within 1 week of surgery and the stent was removed after 8 weeks. The child remains asymptomatic after 3 months of follow-up. Canaliculitis in children is rare and typically involves a single canaliculus. Involvement of both the superior and inferior canaliculus in a child, in this case with simultaneous nasolacrimal duct obstruction, is an exceedingly rare constellation of lacrimal outflow pathologies. The authors theorize that the infectious canaliculitis and resultant inflammation tracked to the lower portion of the outflow system and led to a secondary nasolacrimal duct obstruction in this case which has been previously described.
Ali, Mohammad Javed; Bráuer, Lars; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich
Purpose: To investigate the presence and distribution patterns of 6 surfactant proteins in lacrimal drainage tissues of patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction.
Methods: The presence and distribution of surfactant proteins (SP)-G and SP-H was first assessed in normal cadaveric lacrimal systems. The study was then performed in 10 samples of lacrimal sac and the respective NLDs obtained from patients suffering from primary acquired NLD obstruction who underwent either a dacryocystorhinostomy or a dacryocystectomy. The lacrimal sac samples were further divided into fundus and body, soon after their removal. Immunohistochemical labeling was performed for assessing the presence and distribution of SPs: SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D, SP-G/SFTA2, and SP-H/SFTA3. The results were then scored as positive or negative and the distribution pattern, if any, within the lacrimal sac and NLDs was assessed. Human lung tissues were used as controls.
Results: SP-H was demonstrated in the lining epithelia of the normal lacrimal drainage systems, whereas SP-G was uniformly negative. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed wide variations in the staining patterns of different SPs in different regions of the lacrimal sac and the NLD. SP-D and SP-G revealed uniformly negative immunoreactivity. Variable staining patterns were also noted between the superficial and basal layers of the lining epithelia. However, the goblet cells and intraepithelial mucous glands did not express any of the SPs.
Conclusions: This study provides a proof of principle for the presence of SP-H and absence of SP-G in the normal lacrimal drainage systems. In cases of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, there were alterations or loss of SP expression in the lining epithelia of the lacrimal sac and NLDs, reflecting their possible role in the etiopathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
In cases of primary-acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, the expression of multiple surfactant proteins was either deranged or lost in the lining epithelium of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal ducts.
Mohammad Javed Ali, Dilip Kumar Mishra & Milind N. Naik
Urbach-Weithe syndrome is an exceedingly rare multisystem disorder characterized by pathognomonic clinical findings of multiple beaded papules along the eyelid margins and peri-ocular areas and hoarseness of voice secondary to intercellular deposition of periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive hyaline material. Lacrimal drainage anomalies are not well defined in this syndrome; however, punctal involvement and acquired nasolacrimal duct obstructions have been reported. We present a patient of Urbach-Weithe syndrome with bilateral punctal and peri-punctal involvement.
Rijul S. Kshirsagar, Priscilla Q. Vu & Jonathan Liang
Purpose: Endoscopic surgeries, such as dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), are increasingly performed for orbital and lacrimal conditions. This study describes and compares recent trends in endoscopic DCR with open, or external, DCR in the United States (US).
Methods: Medicare-Part-B National Summary data files were analyzed from 2000 to 2015 for temporal and geographic trends in endoscopic and external DCR. Medicare Physician and Other Supplier public use files detailing provider information were collected and analyzed from 2012 to 2015.
Results: Between 2000 and 2015, the number of external DCRs remained relatively unchanged (8008 to 7086, −0.7% average annual growth), while the number of endoscopic DCRs steadily increased (881 to 1674, 4.6% average annual growth). The greatest number of endoscopic DCRs were performed in the South Atlantic region, whereas the Mountain region had the greatest number per capita. From 2000 to 2015, the average payment per procedure for external DCR was $526.63, compared with $512.45 for endoscopic DCR. Of endoscopic DCRs performed from 2012 to 2015, 831 (79%) were performed by Ophthalmology, 184 (18%) were performed by Otolaryngology, and the remainder by other subspecialties.
Conclusions: The number of endoscopic DCR surgeries increased over the last 15 years while the number of external DCR surgeries remained stable and continued to surpass endoscopic procedures. While ophthalmologists perform the overwhelming majority of endoscopic DCR, otolaryngologists are performing a growing number.
Min Kyu Yang,Namju Kim, Ho-Kyung Choung, Sang In Khwarg
To evaluate the effect of a topical steroid instillation on recently developed incomplete nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) evaluated by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT).
Forty-nine eyes of 31 patients with incomplete NLDO who developed epiphora within 3 months were recruited and treated with a topical steroid for 3 months. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and area (TMA) were measured by ASOCT. The treatment was considered to be effective when there was improvement of subjective epiphora, normal tear meniscus on slit lamp examination, a fluorescein dye disappearance test with grade 0 or 1, and TMH < 250 μm on ASOCT. The treatment effectiveness and associated factors were analyzed.
Treatment was effective in 24 eyes (49.0%) after 6 months of follow-up. TMH and TMA at 3 months were significantly decreased in the effective group on ASOCT (TMH: from 385 to 268 μm, p = 0.002, TMA: from 0.0564 to 0.0266 mm2, p = 0.001, Wilcoxon test). In the effective group, the eyes with normal tear meniscus at 1 month were significantly more frequent than those in the ineffective group (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). No patient in the effective group required further invasive management during 3 years of follow-up.
Topical steroid instillation has a significant therapeutic effect on recently developed incomplete NLDO. Additional invasive procedures were avoided in half of the subjects.
Ali, Mohammad Javed; Paulsen, Friedrich
Purpose: To provide a systematic review of the literature on the etiopathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO).
Methods: The authors performed a PubMed search of all articles published in English with specific reference to etiopathogenesis of PANDO or associations of PANDO. Data captured include demographics, study techniques, hypothesis, presumed or confirmed interpretations with regards to pathogenesis, mechanisms, or pathways. Specific emphasis was laid on addressing the lacunae and potential directions for future research.
Results: Numerous factors are believed to contribute to the etiopathogenesis of PANDO. The basic pathogenesis involves inflammation, vascular congestion, mucosal edema, fibrosis, obstruction, and stasis. Bony nasolacrimal duct diameter does not appear to play a significant role. There is no convincing data to substantiate nose as the site of disease origin and nasal factors appear to be comorbidities. Hormonal mechanisms are more evidence-based but can only partly explain the pathogenesis. Vascular theories are based on the behavior of perilacrimal cavernous bodies, their autonomic control, and additional structural changes in the helical patterns of connective tissue fiber arrangements. Repeated vascular malfunction leading to structural epithelial and subepithelial changes currently appears to be the most evidence-based and accepted theory. Tear proteomics holds a promise in decoding the etiopathogenesis of PANDO, at least in part.
Conclusions: The etiopathogenesis of PANDO appears to be multifactorial. Hormonal microenvironments, vascular factors, and tear proteomics are promising candidates for further work. There is a need for focused work by Clinician-Scientists and the answers can have far reaching clinical implications.
Mohammad Javed Ali, Tarjani Vivek Dave, Dilip Kumar Mishra & Milind N. Naik
Purpose: The aim of this study was to perform a histopathological assessment of the efficacy of sclerosing agents in dacryocystosclerotherapy (DCST) and to evaluate its role as an alternative to dacryocystectomy (DCT) in a specific group of patients.
Methods: Thirteen lacrimal drainage systems of 10 patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) were studied. All patients were awaiting a DCT, indications being repeated attacks of dacryocystitis with severe systemic or ocular co-morbidities and/or refusal for a dacryocystorhinostomy. Fluorescent labelled sodium tetradecyl sulphate (SDS) or bleomycin were used as sclerosing agents for a DCST taking specific precautions. All patients underwent a DCT after 4 weeks and histopathological evaluation was performed to assess the changes and extent of DCST.
Results: There were nine females and one male, and all patients were above the age of 60 years. Of the 13 lacrimal systems studied, the mean duration of PANDO was 1.3 years. All the patients had associated systemic and/or ocular co-morbidities. SDS and bleomycin were used in 6 and 7 lacrimal systems, respectively. The mean doses used for SDS and bleomycin were 0.26 and 0.31 cc, respectively. The post-injection phase was uneventful except for one patient who had a moderate inflammation, which resolved with low dose oral steroids. Histopathological features were more marked in the SDS group and included loss of epithelium, luminal closure, gross fibrosis across the lacrimal sac wall, congestion and hyalinization of blood vessels, and multiple areas of haemorrhages in the sac wall.
Conclusions: DCST is a safe and effective alternative to DCT in very carefully selected patients. Histopathology demonstrates SDS to be more effective as compared to bleomycin.
Paul I. Sia MBChB MPhil David Curragh FRCOphth Stuart Howell PhD Dinesh Selva FRANZCO
This study assesses the interobserver agreement on dacryocystography (DCG) and dacryoscintigraphy (DSG) findings.
There are no standard grading criteria to guide the interpretation of conventional DCG and DSG findings and therefore there may be a degree of subjectivity. This study evaluates the level of interobserver agreement in the interpretation of DCG and DSG findings.
A retrospective observational study at the Royal Adelaide Hospital.
A total of 165 patients who presented with epiphora with 276 DCGs and 290 DSGs performed were included in this study.
DCG and DSG images were obtained, anonymized, randomized and interpreted by three independent oculoplastic surgeons. Standard grading criteria were set for both DCG and DSG images. Data from all observers were analysed for interobserver agreement using Kappa (κ) statistics, generated using a variation of Cohen’s kappa for multiple observers.
Main Outcome Measures
Level of interobserver agreement (κ values) in the grading of DCG and DSG findings.
There was an overall moderate interobserver agreement for DCG findings (κ = 0.55), with the highest agreement on interpreting canalicular obstruction (κ = 0.80), followed by proximal nasolacrimal duct obstruction (κ = 0.67) and normal patency (κ = 0.63). There was an overall fair interobserver agreement for DSG findings (κ = 0.36), with the best being moderate agreement (κ = 0.42‐0.50) for interpreting pre‐sac delay and post‐sac proximal delay.
Conclusions and Relevance
DCG offers good reliability in interpreting patent and obstructed systems. On the other hand, DSG has poor agreement and highlights some of the limitations in the ability to guide epiphora management.
Das, Anthony Vipin; Rath, Suryasnata; Naik, Milind N.; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: To assess the incidence of lacrimal drainage disorders across a tertiary eye care network in India.
Methods: A 5-year retrospective review of all the patients who were diagnosed with lacrimal drainage disorders across the tertiary care network of L.V. Prasad Eye Institute was performed from January 2013 to December 2017. All the patient data were retrieved using all the diagnostic terms assigned to the lacrimal drainage disorders in the in-house electronic medical record system eyeSmart. The incidence of each disorder, demographic details, and clinical presentations were captured.
Results: A total of 20,102 patients were diagnosed with lacrimal drainage disorders in the 5-year period. The 2 most prevalent disorders were primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (n = 10,364, 51.56%) followed by congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO; n = 5394, 26.83%). The most frequently encountered proximal lacrimal disorder was punctal stenosis (n = 603, 3%). More than 2/3rd of the patients presented with epiphora as their presenting complaint (n = 13,907, 69.18%) followed by a discharge (n = 4023, 20.01%). Although two-thirds of the patient with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were females (n = 7081, 68.32%), the same was not true for the CNLDO group, where there was a near equal gender distribution (M:F = 1.06:1). Predisposition to laterality was neither noted in primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction nor in CNLDO. The prevalence of complex CNLDO was 16.80% (n = 907), the rest being simple CNLDO. It was easy to capture the incidence of lacrimal disorders with the electronic medical record system; however, the same was not true for the surgical details. The reasons for this were lack of clarity with surgical codes, no separate drop downs for success/failure or complications, and variations in the documentation.
Conclusions: This study depicts the incidence of various lacrimal drainage disorders in a very large cohort of patients. There is a need to modify the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) classification to incorporate all the diagnostic terminologies commonly used so as to capture the real global scenario. The present study helped to further customize the electronic medical record system that caters to the intricacies of lacrimal disorders.