Supriya Sharma, Srikant K Sahu, Suryasnata Rath, Aparajita Mallick, Savitri Sharma, Sujata Das
To study the type of bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern from corneal scrapings of patients with infectious keratitis presenting with concurrent nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
A retrospective analysis was carried out of patients with microbial keratitis and co-existing nasolacrimal duct obstruction during a 5-year period (January 2012 to December 2016). Antibiotic susceptibility profile data was collected from the microbiology records.
The study included 56 (M:F = 33:23; OD:OS = 34:22) eyes. The mean age of patients was 60.2 ± 12.3 years. Microscopic examination of corneal scrapings showed 52% of gram-positive (n = 29/55) and 2% of multiple (>1; n = 1/55) bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae (32%, n = 18/56), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25%, n = 14/56), and Staphylococcus aureus (11%, n = 6/56) were the most common bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin (72.2%), ofloxacin (94.4%), gatifloxacin (61.1%), and moxifloxacin (83.3%).
Corneal infection associated with nasolacrimal duct obstruction is commonly caused by gram-positive-bacteria. Irrigation of nasolacrimal duct should be mandatory test in microbial keratitis. The gram-positive bacteria isolated showed maximum susceptibility to vancomycin and cefazolin. Early treatment by surgery and appropriate medical management is recommended for its control.
Takahiro Hiraoka, Sujin Hoshi, Kuniharu Tasaki, Tetsuro Oshika
Background To investigate conjunctival bacterial flora in eyes with lacrimal passage obstruction before and after dacryoendoscopic recanalisation with lacrimal tube intubation.
Methods One-hundred fifty eyes with lacrimal passage obstruction that were successfully treated by dacryoendoscopic recanalisation were enrolled. Conjunctival sampling was done for each eye before and 4 months after surgery. The lower fornix was rubbed by a sterile cotton swab, and the collected samples were cultured with several agar plates. Colonies were differentiated and enumerated by standard bacteriological laboratory techniques.
Results Positive bacterial growth was detected in 42.0% of all the samples before surgery, and the positivity rate significantly decreased to 26.0% after surgery (p=0.0051). The number of strains detected also decreased from 20 before surgery to 9 after surgery, especially pathogenic microorganisms decreased. In addition, drug-resistant bacteria such as penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were detected in nine eyes before surgery but were detected only in one eye after surgery. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Corynebacterium spp., which are common in normal conjunctival flora, accounted for 46.5% of all the isolates before surgery and 80.9% after surgery, showing a significant increase in the rate after surgery (p<0.0001).
Conclusions This study showed that physiological recanalisation of lacrimal passage after dacryoendoscopic surgery significantly decreased the culture positivity rate of conjunctival sac and the number of microorganism strains detected. It also decreased the number of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria and increased the percentages of indigenous bacteria, causing the normalisation of conjunctival flora.
Christopher R. Dermarkarian, Amit Bhatt, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Richard C. Allen
A 15-year-old boy who presented with a 1-week history of increasing erythema, edema, and tenderness of the right upper and lower eyelids was found to have acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) secondary to primary amyloidosis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of bilateral NLDO secondary to primary amyloidosis (biopsy proven for right NLDO and presumed for left NLDO) reported in the literature. This case highlights the importance of lacrimal sac biopsy in patients with acquired NLDO of unclear etiology. Given the prevalence of the primary amyloidosis subtype in cases of ocular or adnexal amyloidosis, patients should undergo immediate workup for systemic disease.
Sang Earn Woo & Sun Young Jang
To compare matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) point-of-care immunoassay (InflammaDry) results before and after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in patients with nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction.
Thirty-eight eyes of 38 patients who were diagnosed with unilateral NLD obstruction were treated with endoscopic DCR. Treatment response was monitored using InflammaDry test, tear meniscus height was measured by slit-lamp microscopy, and tear meniscus parameters (tear meniscus height, depth, and area) were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography at baseline and at 1 month after surgery.
In 38 patients, the positive percentage of MMP-9 in diseased eyes was 100% (38 eyes), much higher than that in healthy fellow eyes (13.2%, 5 of 38 eyes) at baseline (p<0.001, χ2 test test). MMP-9 levels before and after surgery were significantly different (p<0.001), and MMP-9-positive eyes showed a significant improvement in MMP-9 grade after surgery (p< 0.0001; generalized McNemar test). Furthermore, other clinical parameters (tear meniscus area, tear meniscus height, and tear meniscus depth) showed a general improvement.
The concentration of MMP-9 increased in the tears of patients’ eyes with NLD obstruction compared to the contralateral healthy eyes. These abnormal findings showed a significant improvement after DCR. The improvement of postoperative MMP-9 expression might be because of the improvement of tear retention.
Albert Wu , David S Curragh , Rebecca Morrow , Dinesh Selva & Garry Davis
Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is the third most common eyelid malignancy in Australia, and is potentially fatal. It usually presents as a nodule or diffuse eyelid thickening, and is commonly misdiagnosed. We describe a case of SC with lacrimal sac involvement, presenting with clinical features of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. At the time of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), nasal endoscopy revealed a polypoid mass of the opened lacrimal sac. Biopsy of the mass showed poorly differentiated SC. The lacrimal drainage apparatus was later excised via a combined external and endoscopic approach. Conjunctival map biopsies showed extensive intraepithelial disease, which was treated with topical mitomycin C. At three-month follow-up, there was no evidence of residual disease on nasal endoscopy or repeat conjunctival biopsy.
Maria Julia Orsolini , Silvana Artioli Schellini , Roberta Lilian Fernandes Souza Meneguim & Antônio José Maria Catâneo
To evaluate the effect of stents on the success of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR-EN) for treating primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO).
A systematic review of randomized clinical trials of DCR-EN for NLDO comparing outcomes of surgeries performed with and without the use of bicanalicular stents and the complications associated with each procedure. Two authors independently searched six databases (Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science) up to May 2019. Statistical analysis and meta-analysis were performed using RevMan 5.3 software provided by the Cochrane Collaboration.
Twelve studies involving 997 surgeries were included in this systematic review. The meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model showed a 94% success rate with stents versus 90.6% without stent. Although stent use favors greater success of DCR-EN, the confidence interval (CI) was wide and very close to nullity line (1.01), decreasing the strength of the recommendation for stent (odds ratio: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.01–2.59, I 2 = 0%). Meta-analysis of the adverse effects was not possible. A descriptive analysis was performed of the general complications related to the stents.
There is evidence that the use of bicanalicular stents slightly improves the success rate of DCR-EN, but the quality of evidence is low. Future prospective, randomized trials enrolling larger sample sizes may provide stronger evidence to determine whether the stent use influences the success of primary acquired DCR-EN.
Shay Keren, Avraham Abergel, Amir Manor, Amir Rosenblatt, Dvir Koenigstein, Igal Leibovitch & Ran Ben Cnaan
Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a widely performed and safe procedure for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction manifested as epiphora or dacryocystitis. Current success rates are above 90%. Data on causes for failure of the procedure are sparse. We investigated the influence of several preoperative parameters on surgery outcome and to establish that parameters are linked with failure.
A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic DCR in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center, a tertiary referral center, between January 2010 and August 2016 were retrospectively examined and data on the occurrence of surgical failure and reasons for failure were retrieved.
A total of 165 patients (183 eyes) were included. The overall success rate for the surgery was 94.7%. The parameters that correlated significantly with failure were coexisting diabetes mellitus (P = 0.037), allergy to medications (P = 0.034), and prior ocular surgery (P = 0.043). There was no correlation between the surgical failure rates and facial trauma, previous nasal or lacrimal surgery, or the usage of a stent.
Endoscopic DCR is a safe and effective surgical procedure. Diabetes mellitus, allergies, and previous ocular surgery may lead to surgical failure. Patients with these risk factors should be aware of increased failure rates.
Grossman, Jennifer L.; Djenderedjian, Levon; Xia, Rong; Shinder, Roman
A 5-year-old male presented with 3 weeks of right eye tearing and medial canthus crusting. He was otherwise healthy with no recent fever, history of similar episodes, history of childhood tearing, sick contacts, upper respiratory infection, or trauma. On exam, there was nontender edema of the right medial upper and lower eyelid in the area of the canaliculi and pouting puncta that displayed mucopurulent discharge on gentle pressure (Fig. A). Upper and lower canaliculitis was suspected and canaliculotomy was recommended, but the parents elected to first try topical antibiotics that failed to show clinical improvement over a two-week period. The child was subsequently brought to the operating room where a punctal-sparing superior and inferior canaliculotomy was carried out and multiple yellow concretions were retrieved (Fig. B). Intraoperative lacrimal irrigation also proved the child to have a complete nasolacrimal duct obstruction for which probing and bicanalicular stenting was performed. Histopathologic assessment of the concretions after Gram staining revealed a branching network of Gram-positive filamentous rods consistent with actinomyces (Fig. C). The clinical and histologic findings confirmed a diagnosis of upper and lower canaliculitis with simultaneous nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The patient’s symptoms resolved within 1 week of surgery and the stent was removed after 8 weeks. The child remains asymptomatic after 3 months of follow-up. Canaliculitis in children is rare and typically involves a single canaliculus. Involvement of both the superior and inferior canaliculus in a child, in this case with simultaneous nasolacrimal duct obstruction, is an exceedingly rare constellation of lacrimal outflow pathologies. The authors theorize that the infectious canaliculitis and resultant inflammation tracked to the lower portion of the outflow system and led to a secondary nasolacrimal duct obstruction in this case which has been previously described.
Ali, Mohammad Javed; Bráuer, Lars; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich
Purpose: To investigate the presence and distribution patterns of 6 surfactant proteins in lacrimal drainage tissues of patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction.
Methods: The presence and distribution of surfactant proteins (SP)-G and SP-H was first assessed in normal cadaveric lacrimal systems. The study was then performed in 10 samples of lacrimal sac and the respective NLDs obtained from patients suffering from primary acquired NLD obstruction who underwent either a dacryocystorhinostomy or a dacryocystectomy. The lacrimal sac samples were further divided into fundus and body, soon after their removal. Immunohistochemical labeling was performed for assessing the presence and distribution of SPs: SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D, SP-G/SFTA2, and SP-H/SFTA3. The results were then scored as positive or negative and the distribution pattern, if any, within the lacrimal sac and NLDs was assessed. Human lung tissues were used as controls.
Results: SP-H was demonstrated in the lining epithelia of the normal lacrimal drainage systems, whereas SP-G was uniformly negative. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed wide variations in the staining patterns of different SPs in different regions of the lacrimal sac and the NLD. SP-D and SP-G revealed uniformly negative immunoreactivity. Variable staining patterns were also noted between the superficial and basal layers of the lining epithelia. However, the goblet cells and intraepithelial mucous glands did not express any of the SPs.
Conclusions: This study provides a proof of principle for the presence of SP-H and absence of SP-G in the normal lacrimal drainage systems. In cases of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, there were alterations or loss of SP expression in the lining epithelia of the lacrimal sac and NLDs, reflecting their possible role in the etiopathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
In cases of primary-acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, the expression of multiple surfactant proteins was either deranged or lost in the lining epithelium of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal ducts.