Patrick Daigle, Ming-Han Lee, Mariana Flores, Paolo Campisi, Dan DeAngelis
Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the soft tissues lying behind the orbital septum. The etiologic agents differ across age group, but gram-positive cocci colonizing the skin and the nasopharynx, such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, are most commonly identified in children. Haemophilus influenzae, a gram-negative facultative anaerobe, was frequently identified before the introduction of the Haemophilus vaccine in 1985. We report the case of a 15-year-old man who presented with a severe orbital cellulitis complicated by a subperiosteal abscess (SPA) secondary to Capnocytophaga sputigena.
Hernandez-Bogantes, Erick; Campos-Fuentes, Erick; Barrantes-Dominguez, Mario; Wu, Lihteh Less
Chagas disease is an inflammatory, infectious disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi found in the feces of the triatomine bug, which can cause a sudden, brief acute illness, or it may become a long-lasting chronic condition. Chagas disease is common in South America and Central America, however, the constantly expanding global community has brought Chagas disease to the forefront of non-endemic areas, particularly the United States and Europe. The authors present a case of a 47-year-old healthy farmer diagnosed with a right orbital cellulitis refractory to systemic antibiotics. Based on clinical symptoms, the patient’s medical/demographical history and a proper differential diagnosis, an acute phase of Chagas disease was diagnosed. After antiparasitic treatment, the patient had a proper recovery and continued with a regular follow-up to monitor the possible development of a chronic phase.
Mathews, Basil; George, Roshan; Ulrich, Jan Niklas
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum which is undergoing a global resurgence since its initial decline in the late 1980s. The authors present the case of a 30-year-old Caucasian female who was transferred to our institution for left-sided orbital cellulitis and ultimately diagnosed with ocular syphilis causing panophthalmitis. She was treated with intravenous penicillin and other broad-spectrum antibiotics, topical prednisolone, and cycloplegia, resulting in full recovery. Timely recognition of ocular syphilis by healthcare professionals is key in the prevention of visual sequelae from the infection.
VS Vijitha, Tarjani Vivek Dave, Somasheila I Murthy, Mohammad Javed Ali, Vivek Pravin Dave, Rajeev Reddy Pappuru, Raja Narayanan
Purpose: To describe a series of sight-threatening ocular and adnexal involvement associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and their treatment options. Methods: Retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series. Medical records of patients who presented with ocular symptoms attributed to dengue hemorrhagic fever were reviewed. Demography, presenting features, and treatment outcomes were recorded. Outcome measures assessed included globe salvage, vision salvage, and visual improvement. The outcome was deemed as favorable if vision salvage was possible and unfavorable if the vision was lost. Results: Twenty-nine eyes of 23 patients were included. Bilateral ocular involvement was seen in 6 (26%) patients. The mean age was 37.62 ± 18.68 years (range: 14 to 81 years). Coexistent diabetes mellitus and enteric fever were present in three patients. History of blood transfusion was present in nine (40%) and thrombocytopenia in eight (35%) patients at the time of presentation with ocular complaints. Presenting features included endophthalmitis in 11 (38%), panophthalmitis in 10 (35%), orbital cellulitis with panophthalmitis in four (14%), isolated corneal or scleral melt in three (10%), and orbital hemorrhage with panophthalmitis in one (3%) patient. Globe salvage was achieved in 21/29 eyes (72.4%), vision salvage in 6/29 eyes (20.68%), and improvement in visual acuity was noted in 5/29 eyes (17.24%). Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant effect of any clinical-microbiological factors on globe salvage, vision salvage, and visual improvement. However, visual improvement and globe salvage were possible in eyes that underwent early endoscopic vitrectomy. Conclusion: Dengue fever can present with sight-threatening ocular and adnexal inflammation resulting in endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, orbital cellulitis, corneal and scleral melt, and orbital hemorrhage. Early vitrectomy may improve vision and globe salvage in cases with significant vitritis.
Kevin B. H. Vo , Mark J. Lucarelli & Suzanne W. van Landingham
This report presents two cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)-associated dacryocystitis. Both patients presented with preseptal edema. Orbital computed tomography (CT) scans were performed out of concern for orbital cellulitis and revealed soft tissue edema involving the preseptal aspect of the eyelids and also the lacrimal sac. Both patients were initially diagnosed with bacterial preseptal cellulitis with dacryocystitis and admitted for treatment with intravenous antibiotics. After no improvement on antibiotics, both patients were noted to have exam findings consistent with viral conjunctivitis, and one patient had a positive conjunctival swab for adenovirus. Both patients were subsequently treated with topical steroids, and symptoms improved. EKC has previously been identified as a cause of acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and canalicular stenosis, and acute inflammation of the lacrimal apparatus may explain this link. Dacryocystitis may also be contributory to the copious tearing seen in patients with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.
Roger E. Turbin , Peter J. Wawrzusin , Nicole M. Sakla , Christin M. Traba , Kristin G. Wong , Neena Mirani , Jean A. Eloy & Esther A. Nimchinsky
We review two cases of adolescents with orbital cellulitis, sinusitis and SARS- CoV-2 infection presenting to emergency departments within a 24 hour period. SARS-CoV-2 samples obtained within 24 hours were positive, supporting prior infection despite relatively limited early symptoms of COVID-19. Unusual clinical and radiographic characteristics included hemorrhagic abscess with blood of varying age in the first, intracranial epidural abscess in the second, radiographic signal consistent with hemorrhagic or thrombotic phenomena, retro-maxillary antral fat changes, and meningeal enhancement or extension in both cases. Radiographic findings thereby mimic fungal infection, although final cultures and ancillary investigation for allergic and invasive fungal disease have remained negative. These cases highlight two unusual orbital presentations of cellulitis occurring in the context of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.
Abdulaziz I Al Somali, Halah S Bin Helayel, Saeed A Jubran, Jumana T Hariri, Hala M Nassim Ali
Repeated vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) are the hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD). These repeated crises can lead to bone infarcts, necrosis, and, over time, degenerative changes in the bone marrow. Orbital complications in SCD patients are infrequent and usually present as orbital cellulitis. We report the appearance of orbital bone infarction intraoperatively in the case of an 18-year-old Saudi male patient who has been diagnosed with SCD and presented with severe headaches and generalized body aches. He was admitted with a case of SCD with acute VOC and started on the hospital sickle cell protocol. During the admission, the patient developed bilateral periorbital swelling and left inferior dystopia secondary to bilateral frontoparietal bone infarction, which was evident on the magnetic resonance imaging.
Reem Alanazi, Silvana Schellini, Osama AlSheikh, Sahar Elkhamary
We report a case of a young healthy patient who developed orbital cellulitis and scleritis after retinal detachment surgery that was repaired with a scleral buckling procedure. Once scleral implant infection occurs, orbital infection results requiring removal of the implant in all previous reported cases. However, our patient was treated with systemic antibiotic and steroids without the need for removal of the scleral buckle.
David Somsen, Gena Heidary
Orbital cellulitis is extremely uncommon following strabismus surgery. When it occurs, the infection has been reported to present from day 1 to within 1 week following surgery and has the potential for significant morbidity. We report the case of a 6.5-year-old boy presenting with unilateral orbital cellulitis growing group A Streptococcus pyogenes on postoperative day 1, after uncomplicated bilateral medial rectus recessions. The patient had two contacts with streptococcal pharyngitis at the time of surgery but was completely asymptomatic himself. We hypothesize that these contacts may have led to the rapid onset of his orbital cellulitis.
Wolkow, Natalie; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Habib, Larissa A.; Freitag, Suzanne K.
Purpose: To highlight the histopathologic diagnostic challenges of small-cell predominant extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENTNKT) of the orbit.
Methods: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of 3 cases.
Results: Three cases of ENTNKT presented to the Mass Eye and Ear emergency room as orbital cellulitis over 1 year. The first case was unusual in that there was a predominance of small cells, giving the ENTNKT the histopathologic appearance of a nonmalignant inflammatory process. This challenging case is juxtaposed alongside 2 other cases, which exhibited the more typical lymphomatous microscopic appearance.
Discussion: ENTNKT can extend into the orbit from the adjacent sinuses or rarely arise primarily in the orbit. A diagnosis is typically made with a biopsy. Occasionally, however, the histopathologic diagnosis can be elusive when a predominance of small lymphomatous cells that are virtually indistinguishable from non-neoplastic inflammatory cells is present. Demonstration of CD56 positivity by immunostaining and in situ hybridization for Epstein–Barr virus are essential in confirming the diagnosis.
Conclusions: ENTNKT should be considered both in the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses of orbital infections and idiopathic inflammations (pseudotumor).