Sonal P Yadav, Anirudha Puntambekar, Tushar Patil, Rahul Deshpande
Eyelid metastases are relatively rare, and they can occasionally lead the way to an unknown primary malignancy elsewhere. The authors report a case of 65-year-old diabetic gentleman with a right-sided eyelid lesion that was present for 1 month and turned out to be a presenting sign of a previously undiagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The eyelid mass had been treated elsewhere for 2 weeks for a presumed infectious lesion, using systemic antibiotics and was then referred to us in view of no response. The right-sided lesion involving the subbrow and eyelid area was tender and showed surface ulceration, as well as induration with scabbing. An incision biopsy of the mass was performed followed by computed tomography imaging. Histopathologic findings were suggestive of adenocarcinoma of a probable secondary origin. A whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scan along with raised serum tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen 125 [CEA 125] and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 [CA-19-9]) was helpful in diagnosing a stage IV probable primary carcinoma of the pancreas, with metastasis to paraaortic nodes, liver, lungs, and eyelid. After a detailed systemic work-up, the patient was put on systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin and capacitabane. He responded well to the treatment. At a follow up of 12 months, upon clinical examination and PET imaging, he showed a complete resolution of eyelid, lung, and liver disease and a near-complete resolution of the pancreatic lesion. This case delineates the role of a prompt biopsy and histopathologic evaluation of an atypical eyelid mass in diagnosing asymptomatic primary malignancy
Bei Li , Jianwei Yang, Wencan Wu, Chang Chai, Zhuo Gu, Zaiqing He, Zhiwei Tan, Shuanghua Cheng, Ping Lu, Liuzhi Zeng
An anatomical and histological study of the conjoint fascial sheath of the levator and superior rectus (CFS) was carried out by using the cadavers for teaching.
Three adult Asian cadaver heads fixed in formalin were used. The CFS was exposed by the same surgeon in each case. Then the CFS was observed and measured in vivo and ex vivo. And the CFS, the levator and the frontal muscle were removed from the same eye for histological study.
The CFS was located 2.1 ± 0.4 mm posterior to the fornix. A special muscle sheath of the levator was observed. The special muscle sheath and the tendon of the superior rectus were fused to the CFS through loose connective tissue. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining showed a large amount of connective tissue on examination of the CFS by microscopy. Double staining with Victoria-blue and Masson trichrome staining confirmed elastic fibers and collagen fibers in the CFS tissues.
If ptosis correction surgery is performed by looking for the CFS from the upper edge of the conjunctiva, in fact, only a special part of the muscle sheath of the levator in the CFS, but not the integral CFS, is used in the surgery. The histological results confirm that the CFS is a fibrous tissue membrane with both elasticity and toughness. Perhaps the best choice is to recombine the special muscle sheath of the levator in the CFS with the levator muscle tissue during ptosis correction surgery to suspend the eyelids.
Kathryn P Winker, Robert Beaulieu, Lauren Bevill, Aleksey Mishulin, Evan H Black
We evaluated the effects of aspirin versus placebo in patients undergoing upper eyelid blepharoplasty and/or levator advancement or plication blepharoptosis repair in this randomized, prospective study.
Patients who presented between October 2017 and April 2019 requiring blepharoptosis repair and/or upper eyelid blepharoplasty who were taking 81 mg aspirin were randomized to receive 1 week of aspirin tablets or 1 week of placebo tablets prior to surgery. Postoperative complications, such as bleeding, hematoma, or hemorrhage, were noted as well as perioperative thromboembolic complications. Photos were obtained at the patient’s first postoperative visit and later judged on bruising severity. The 2 groups were subsequently compared.
A total of 48 patients and 89 eyelids were evaluated in this study. Fifty-two eyelids were included in the aspirin group and 37 eyelids were included in the placebo group. There was no statistically significant difference in bruising rating between groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of patients who experienced mild postoperative bleeding. No patients experienced vision loss. No patients experienced a thromboembolic event. There were no patients who experienced hemorrhage, hematoma, or retrobulbar hemorrhage.
Continuation of aspirin does not appear to effect outcomes with respect to postoperative bruising in patients undergoing upper eyelid blepharoplasty or blepharoptosis repair. The study was not powered to determine statistical significance with regard to bleeding complications and would require a significantly higher sample size. We suggest changing the current guidelines to recommend routine continuation of low dose 81 mg aspirin before upper eyelid surgery
Rawan N Althaqib, Arif O Khan, Adel H Alsuhaibani
To describe a novel observation of ipsilateral eyelid myokymia in the context of Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis (MGJWS).
A retrospective case series of 5 patients observed to have myokymia in the context of MGJWS in 2 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted. Demographic profile including age and gender, and clinical features were analyzed
Five patients (3 males and 2 females) with MGJWS were noted to demonstrate the phenomenon of ipsilateral eyelid myokymia. All but 1 had right-sided MGJWS. The myokymia was seen as upper eyelid twitching in a vertical fashion along the levator palpebrae superioris muscle field of action. All subjects also had ipsilateral Monocular elevation deficiency.
Ipsilateral upper eyelid myokymia is a potential feature of MGJWS. Monocular elevation seems to be a constant feature among MGJWS patients with levator muscle myokymia.
Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis (MGJWS) is not well understood. Ipsilateral eyelid myokymia is a potential feature of MGJWS. This finding suggests that peripheral dysinnervation is likely to be a part of MGJWS.
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Ugradar, Shoaib; Karlin, Justin; Le, Alan; Park, Joseph; Goldberg, Robert A
The floppy eyelid syndrome describes an eyelid disorder characterized by floppy tarsal plates that may be caused by a loss of elastin. The authors attempted to create floppy eyelids by digesting elastin from cadaveric tarsus and then treated them with cross-linking using ultraviolet A and riboflavin.
Nine right and 9 left upper eyelids were excised from cadavers. Four vertical strips of central tarsus were removed from each eyelid. One strip of tarsus from each eyelid was treated with 10 units/ml of elastase for 2 hours. Another tarsal strip from each eyelid was immersed in normal saline for 2 hours (control). A third strip from the same eyelid was cross-linked using ultraviolet A at 6 mW/cm2 for 18 minutes. Finally, a fourth strip of tarsus was cross-linked in the same manner following treatment with elastase for 2 hours. A microtensile load cell was used to measure the Young modulus (stiffness) of each tissue.
Mean (standard deviation) Young modulus for controls (18.9 ± 3.6 MPa) was significantly higher than samples treated with elastase alone (6.6 ± 3.8 MPa, p <0.01). Samples that were treated with cross-linking after elastase had a mean (standard deviation) Young modulus of 26 ± 2.3 MPa, while those treated with cross-linking alone had a mean (standard deviation) Young modulus of 34 ± 0.15 MPa. The differences in stiffness between all groups were significant (p <0.01).
Treatment with elastase significantly reduces the stiffness of tarsal plates. This effect is reversed by cross-linking, raising the possibility of using this modality for the treatment of FES
William Young, Stacy M Scofield-Kaplan, R Evan Levy, Zachary Keenum, Ronald Mancini
To evaluate the change in lateral canthal angle (LCA), inferior ocular surface exposed (IOSE), lower eyelid curvature, and margin-to-reflex distance 2 in those undergoing lower eyelid ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip technique.
This is an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis of patients undergoing lower eyelid ectropion repair. This study included all patients from 2012 to 2018 operated on by a single surgeon at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. For each patient, LCA, IOSE, and eyelid curvature were measured on preoperative and postoperative photographs using NIH Image J photographic analysis. These measurements were compared using paired 1-tail t-tests for LCA and IOSE and paired 2-tail t-tests for eyelid curvature. This study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant with protection of individually identifiable information.
Fifty-one patients with lower eyelid ectropion underwent lower eyelid ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip technique. Forty-three of the patients underwent a bilateral lower eyelid ectropion repair. There was no statistically significant difference in the LCA. There was a reduction in IOSE among both cohorts. The fourth degree polynomial trendlines generated to assess eyelid curvature demonstrated statistical significance, suggesting a flattening of eyelid curvature. margin-to-reflex distance 2 also had a statistically significant decrease postoperatively.
Lower eyelid ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip approach causes a reduction in IOSE, a more gradual lower eyelid curvature, and a decrease in margin-to-reflex distance 2 without causing a statistically significant change in LCA.