Natalie A. Homer, Paul M. Hoesly & Vikram D. DurairajRead More
No abstract available
Natalie A. Homer, Paul M. Hoesly & Vikram D. DurairajRead More
No abstract available
Md. Shahid Alam, Vathsalya Vijay, Atanu Barh & Krishnakumar SubramanianRead More
Plasma cell granuloma is a rare non-neoplastic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology commonly involving lung and gastrointestinal tract. Conjunctival disease per se is very rare and usually associated with involvement of other organs. We report a case of conjunctival plasma cell granuloma without any systemic involvement in a 9-year-old girl who presented with bilateral reddish vascularised subconjunctival episcleral mass. An excision biopsy of the mass in the left eye followed by histopathologic examination and Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. At 1 year follow-up, the child had no recurrence in the operated eye whereas the lesion remained the same in the other eye despite systemic treatment with immunosuppressants. This case is being reported for its rarity and to insist on the mandatory need for a thorough systemic workup to identify multiorgan involvement as well as to rule out other systemic disorders.
Jiawei Zhao, Harry Quon, Wayne Koch, Lisa M Rooper & Ashley A CampbellRead More
A 78-year-old Caucasian female presented with a painless mass in the right orbit that had progressively enlarged over several months. Computed tomography scan of the orbits showed a right lacrimal gland mass with no bony erosion. Histopathologic analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma positive via in-situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus. The patient underwent successful removal of the right lacrimal gland tumor en bloc, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. This is an extremely rare case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal gland and the first report describing human papillomavirus positivity in this tumor location.
Charlotte A. Espensen,Jens F. Kiilgaard,Ane L. Appelt,…Celia Maschi,Jean-Pierre Caujolle,Juliette ThariatRead More
Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models could aid the understanding of dose dependence of radiation-induced toxicities after eye-preserving radiotherapy of choroidal melanomas. We performed NTCP-modeling and established dose-response relationships for visual acuity (VA) deterioration and common late complications after treatments with proton therapy (PT).
Retrospective study from single, large referral center.
We considered patients from Nice, France, diagnosed with choroidal melanoma and treated primarily with hypofractionated PT (52 Gy physical dose in 4 fractions). Complete VA deterioration information was available for 1020 patients, and complete information on late complications was available for 991 patients.
Treatment details, dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for relevant anatomic structures, and patient and tumor characteristics were available from a dedicated ocular database. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection was used to identify variables with the strongest impact on each end point, followed by multivariate Cox regressions and logistic regressions to analyze the relationships among dose, clinical characteristics, and clinical outcomes.
Main Outcome Measures
Dose-response relationship for VA deterioration and late complications.
Dose metrics for several structures (i.e., optic disc, macula, retina, globe, lens, ciliary body) correlated with clinical outcome. The near-maximum dose to the macula showed the strongest correlation with VA deterioration. The near-maximum dose to the retina was the only variable with clear impact on the risk of maculopathy, the dose to 20% of the optic disc had the largest impact on optic neuropathy, dose to 20% of cornea had the largest impact on neovascular glaucoma, and dose to 20% of the ciliary body had the largest impact on ocular hypertension. The volume of the ciliary body receiving 26 Gy was the only variable associated with the risk of cataract, and the volume of retina receiving 52 Gy was associated with the risk of retinal detachment. Optic disc-to-tumor distance was the only variable associated with dry eye syndrome in the absence of DVH for the lachrymal gland.
VA deterioration and specific late complications demonstrated dependence on dose delivered to normal structures in the eye after PT for choroidal melanoma. VA deterioration depended on dose to a range of structures, whereas more specific complications were related to dose metrics for specific structures.
Susanna Jouhi,Jorma Heikkonen,Vappu Reijonen,Virpi Raivio,Martin Täll,Tero T. KiveläRead More
To compare tumor control, vision, and complications between patients with a choroidal melanoma of <10 mm in largest basal diameter (LBD) irradiated with 10-mm or 15-mm ruthenium plaques.
Retrospective, comparative case series.
One hundred sixty-four consecutive patients with a choroidal melanoma of <10 mm in LBD, 76 and 88 treated with the 10-mm and 15-mm plaque, respectively, from 1998–2014 in a national ocular oncology service.
Diagnosis was based on growth or high-risk characteristics. The apical dose was 100 to 120 Gy aiming to deliver ≥250 Gy to the sclera. Plaque positioning was modeled retrospectively. An increase of ≥0.3 mm in thickness and ≥0.5 mm in LBD indicated local recurrence. Outcomes were compared with cumulative incidence analysis and Cox regression. Median follow-up time for patients still alive was 8.4 years.
Main Outcome Measures
Recurrence rate, low vision, blindness, radiation maculopathy, and optic neuropathy.
Melanomas treated with the 10-mm plaque were smaller (median thickness, 1.9 mm vs. 2.6 mm; LBD, 7.1 mm vs. 8.6 mm) and located closer to foveola (median, 2.0 mm vs. 2.8 mm) than those treated with the 15-mm plaque (P < 0.001). The 2 plaques provided a safety margin in 43% versus 40% eyes, provided no safety margin to guard foveola in 17% versus 33%, and did not entirely cover tumor mainly close to the disc in 32% versus 18% of eyes, respectively (P = 0.052). The incidence of a local recurrence was comparable (13% vs. 15% at 10 years; P = 0.31) and associated with plaque positioning (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81 for no safety margin; P = 0.041). At 5 years, the incidence of low vision was 14% versus 24%, and that of blindness was 3% versus 6%. Distance to the foveola was associated with loss of both levels of vision (HR, 0.65 per 1 mm vs. 0.68 per 1 mm; P ≤ 0.001 vs. P = 0.004). The incidence of radiation maculopathy was comparable (19% vs. 18% at 5 years), whereas that of optic neuropathy tended to be higher with the 15-mm plaque (2% vs. 9%; P = 0.054).
The 10-mm ruthenium plaque contributes to better visual preservation, particularly with tumors close to fovea, without increase in local recurrence rate, and may therefore be preferable to the 15-mm plaque.
Yacoub A. Yousef, Ibrahim Al-Nawaiseh, Mustafa Mehyar, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Matthew WilsonRead More
To evaluate the efficacy of integrating a telemedicine-based twinning partnership and centralized care for retinoblastoma on survival and eye salvage.
Four hundred seventy-eight retinoblastoma patients treated at a tertiary referral cancer center (King Hussein Cancer Centre [KHCC]) from 2003 through 2019.
Four hundred seventy-eight retinoblastoma patients treated at KHCC after implementing a telemedicine-based program with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.
We reviewed the outcomes of retinoblastoma patients who were treated at KHCC after implementing a telemedicine-based eye salvage program with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, and we compared that with outcomes for retinoblastoma patients who were treated before implementing a telemedicine-based retinoblastoma service at KHCC.
Main Outcome Measures
We analyzed patient demographics, clinical characteristics, treatments received, consultation type and duration, and long-term patient outcomes before and after implementing the twinning program.
Over 17 years, 813 eyes from 478 children with retinoblastoma were treated at KHCC. Three hundred thirty-five patients (70%) had bilateral disease. Six patients (4%) with unilateral disease and 66 patients (20%) with bilateral disease had a family history of retinoblastoma. After the twinning program was established in 2003, the mortality rate decreased from 38% to 5% (P < 0.0001), and the overall eye salvage rate increased from 4% to 61% (98% for group A, 93% for group B, 81% for group C, and 48% for group D; P < 0.0001). Initially, all cases were discussed via telemedicine, but as knowledge transfer increased, the proportion of cases that required discussion decreased to less than 3% 10 years later. Similarly, treatment changes based on consultations decreased from 70% to 7% after 10 years. Both survival and eye-salvage rates were comparable at the early and later stages of implementing the twinning program. At a median follow-up of 120 months, 5% of patients had died of metastases or secondary neoplasms, 81% were alive, and 14% were lost to follow-up.
Centralization of care at a single center in developing countries can achieve patient outcomes comparable with those of developed countries via twinning and telemedicine. This benefit can extend to a large region because two thirds of patients treated at KHCC were non-Jordanians.
Ahmet Kaan Gündüz, Ibadulla Mirzayev, Rukiye Kasimoglu & Funda Seher Özalp AteşRead More
To report the swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) findings in choroidal and retinal tumors.
A retrospective noncomparative interventional case series of 60 eyes having various choroidal and retinal tumors imaged with SS-OCTA (Topcon DR1 Triton Plus, Tokyo, Japan) between September 2018 and February 2020 was conducted. Inclusion criteria were tumor thickness <4 mm, tumor base diameter <10 mm, and tumor location at the posterior pole.
Choroidal nevi usually demonstrated well-defined borders, hyperreflective internal structure, and no outer retinal involvement on SS-OCTA. Choroidal melanoma, in contrast to nevi, usually had ill-defined borders (p = 0.018), mixed hyperreflective–hyporeflective or hyperreflective internal structure (p = 0.014), and demonstrated outer retinal involvement (p < 0.001). Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma usually presented with well-defined borders, a hyperreflective internal tumor structure with multiple dilated interconnected tumor vessels intermixed with signal void areas representing connective tissue. Optic disc melanocytomas showed a hyporeflective plexus related to blocking of signal by the pigment and an intact radial peripapillary capillary network. There was flow on the surface and slightly deeper within the lesion on B-scan angiography overlay. Retinal astrocytic hamartomas had well-defined borders and a hyperreflective vascular plexus in the superficial and deep retina. Outer retina and choriocapillaris showed hyporeflective change due to shadowing/masking from calcium or high blood flow in the lesion.
Each of the different retinal and choroidal tumors studied in this series presented with different SS-OCTA features to aid in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Good quality images are obtained in patients with good fixation and tumors <3 mm in thickness located at the posterior pole.
Vinodh Kakkassery MD, PhD,Sarah E. Coupland MD, PhD,Ludwig M. Heindl MD, PhD, MScRead More
Iris lymphomas are rare malignant neoplasms arising either as primary tumors in the iris or as secondary tumors involving the iris. We summarize previously published data and make recommendations for work-up strategies for cases of suspected iris lymphoma. Our objective is to provide a structured overview of the typical clinical symptoms and signs, the pathologic, ophthalmic, as well as hematologic work-up for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of iris lymphomas and offer a flowchart on how to diagnose and treat these tumors.
Maria Filì, Eric Trocme, Christina Herrspiegel, Stefan Seregard, Gustav StålhammarRead More
Background Episcleral brachytherapy is the most common treatment for medium-sized choroidal melanomas. Although controversial, inadequate brachytherapy dose and dose rates have at least a hypothetical implication on patient survival.
Methods All patients who received ruthenium-106 or iodine-125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma at St. Erik Eye Hospital 1996 to 2016 were included (n=1238). Cox regression hazard ratios for melanoma-related mortality across deciles, quartiles and individual integers of apex radiation doses (Gy) and dose rates (Gy/hour) were calculated, adjusted for tumour size and location.
Results The average radiation dose at the tumour apex ranged from 73.0 Gy in the first decile to 108.6 Gy in the tenth. Decreasing apex dose by 1 Gy increments or by decile or quartile group was not associated with melanoma-related mortality (p>0.2) The average radiation dose rate at the tumour apex ranged from 0.5 Gy/hour in the first decile to 2.8 Gy/hour in the tenth. Similarly, decreasing apex dose rate by 1 Gy/hour increments or by decile or quartile groups was not associated with melanoma-related mortality (p>0.5).
Conclusion There are no increased hazards for choroidal melanoma-related mortality after brachytherapy with decreasing doses between 108.6 and 73.0 Gy, or with decreasing dose rates between 2.8 and 0.5 Gy/hour.
Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Iris Moroz, Tal Davidy, Keren Zloto, Yael Birger, Ido Didi Fabian, Guy Ben Simon, Ayelet Priel, Ofira ZlotoRead More
Introduction Naevus of Ota is a congenital condition that may involve the skin, eyeball and even intracranial structures usually in the distribution of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal cranial nerve. The purpose of this study was to summarise our experience with the ocular clinical presentation, imaging, outcome, treatment of complications and to offer a new classification of patients with naevus of Ota.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed the patients’ medical records and the following parameters were retrieved and analysed: demographics, clinical presentation complications and treatment of complications. Imaging characteristics of patients with naevus of Ota were compared with images from the same period of time of 57 age-matched and gender-matched patients without naevus of Ota (control group).
Results The series was composed of 40 patients (18 males, 22 females) whose mean age at diagnosis was 35.27 years (range 0.5–77 years). Thirty-three patients (82.5%) were type I naevus of Ota according to the Tanino classification, three patients (7.5%) were type II, one patient (2.5%) was type III and three patient (7.5%) were type IV (bilateral naevus of Ota). We further classified all cases in according to the ocular involvement extent. Three patients developed malignant transformation to choroidal melanoma and four patients developed glaucoma.
Conclusions In this study, a new clinical classification based on the involved ocular component and extent of the involvement (in quadrants) of the globe is suggested first. Further studies are needed to assess whether our clinical ocular classification can assist in identifying patients at risk for developing glaucoma and malignant transformation.