Tatyana Milman,Cristiane M. Ida,Paul J.L. Zhang,Ralph C. Eagle Jr.Read More
To highlight the increasing importance of gene fusions in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of ocular adnexal tumors.
A focused review of gene fusions, their pathogenic mechanism, and gene fusion detection methods in lacrimal gland and primary orbital and ocular adnexal soft tissue tumors; reappraisal of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approach to ocular adnexal tumors in light of emerging molecular genetic data.
The widespread implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridization and next-generation sequencing methods in pathology practice has led to identification of recurrent gene rearrangements and fusions in a variety of tumors. As a result, molecular genetic methods have become the gold standard for diagnosis of tumors with overlapping histology and immunophenotype, such as small round blue cell tumors. Identification of canonic gene fusions has led to development of sensitive and specific immunohistochemical markers, such as STAT6 in solitary fibrous tumor. In addition to diagnostic accuracy, gene fusions have prognostic implications, such as unfavorable prognosis of PAX3-FOXO1 fusion in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Finally, recognition of gene fusions as a driving mechanism in neoplasia has led to development of U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved targeted therapies, such as TRK inhibitors for NTRK fusion-positive cancers.
The discovery of recurrent gene fusions in various tumors, including those involving ocular adnexa, has led to a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of these neoplasms, revolutionizing our approach to their diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy.