Nahyoung Grace Lee, Larissa Habib, Jonathan Hall & Suzanne K. Freitag
Purpose: To report a simple, highly effective technique of simultaneous transconjunctival repair of upper and lower eyelid retraction in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED).
Methods: A retrospective interventional case review was conducted on 22 eyes of 19 TED patients. The lower eyelid was recessed with placement of a tarsoconjunctival spacer graft harvested from the upper eyelid. The upper eyelid was then recessed through the conjunctival incision used to harvest the tarsal graft. A temporary tarsorrhaphy was placed for 5–7 days. The postoperative outcome was assessed by measuring the margin reflex distance of the upper eyelid (MRD1), inferior scleral show (ISS), and lagophthalmos.
Results: The absolute change in MRD1 ranged from 0 to 5 mm with an average of 1.86 ± 1.34 mm. The absolute change in ISS ranged from 0 to 2 mm with an average of 1.3 ± 0.49 mm. One patient had postoperative lagophthalmos and 17 of 19 had improvement in their ocular surface exposure symptoms. None of the patients’ grafts were observed to undergo absorption during the postoperative course.
Conclusions: This technique of harvesting a free tarsoconjunctival graft from the upper eyelid as a posterior spacer for the lower while simultaneously recessing the upper eyelid through the same incision is an effective and durable method of correcting eyelid retraction in TED.
George Salloum, Bryant P. Carruth, Robert H. Hill III, Craig N. Czyz & Thomas A. Bersani
Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of patients who transitioned from a weight to a spring.
Methods: Case series original investigation. Five consecutive patients undergoing “enhanced” palpebral spring insertion status post gold weight insertion were identified. Outcome measures included visual acuity, lagophthalmos, margin reflex distance 1, and corneal epithelial defects. Subjective outcomes included need for eye lubrication, closure and rapid blink, and symptoms of discomfort and dryness. This study was reviewed by an accredited Institutional Review Board (IRB) and granted exempt status according to federal regulations.
Results: Mean visual acuity post weight versus spring was 20/200 (logMAR 1.0, Std Dev. −0.6) and 20/25 (logMAR 0.1, Std Dev. −0.1), respectively (p = 0.0214, CI 0.231 to 1.670). Mean lagophthalmos post weight (3.5 mm, Std Dev. −2.8) versus post spring (0.2 mm, Std Dev. −0.5). Margin reflex distance 1 improved by a mean of 1.4 mm (gold wt –0.6, Std Dev. −0.5/spring −2.0, Std Dev. −0.4) (p = 0.0016, CI −1.773 to −0.977). Superficial punctate keratopathy was present in all patients with weights and present in no patients post transition (p = 0.0079). Post transition, three of five patients rarely required lubrication and experienced a more satisfactory blink rate.
Conclusion: Patients with lagophthalmos due to cranial nerve seven palsy who have undergone gold weight placement but continue to exhibit objective and subjective corneal symptoms may have symptomatic improvement with the transition to a palpebral spring.
Peter W. MacIntosh, Aaron M. Fay
Bell’s palsy is the most common neurologic condition affecting the cranial nerves. Lagophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, and corneal ulceration are potential complications. In this review, we evaluate various causes of facial paralysis as well as the level 1 evidence supporting the use of a short course of oral steroids for idiopathic Bell’s palsy to improve functional outcomes. Various surgical and nonsurgical techniques are also discussed for the management of residual facial dysfunction.
Scofield-Kaplan, Stacy, M., M.D.; Dunbar, Kristen, E., M.D.; Campbell, Ashley, A., M.D.; Kazim, Michael, M.D.
Purpose: To describe the use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) device in the management of complex oculoplastic pathology.
Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of individuals over 18 years of age who were referred and successfully fit with the PROSE scleral device between January 1995 and June 2015.
Results: Nine cases were identified that had complex oculoplastic disease and severe corneal surface disease. All patients with ptosis had improvement in marginal reflex distance-1 following PROSE and 5 of 7 patients with ptosis were spared further surgical intervention. Two underwent surgical repair with successful corneal stabilization with PROSE. Those with eyelid malposition including ectropion, entropion, or trichiasis experienced improvement in their corneal surface and deferred further surgical intervention.
Conclusions: These cases highlight the use of the PROSE device to elevate the upper eyelid in patients with lagophthalmos and ptosis, stabilize the corneal surface to allow for additional eyelid surgery to be performed safely, and protect the corneal surface in patients with intractable trichiasis and entropion. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem should be considered in patients with complex oculoplastic pathology to improve visual function, corneal surface disease, and eyelid position.
Petrina Tan, Tsong Qiang Kwong, Raman Malhotra
Dermal fillers have been in use for many years for aesthetic rejuvenation of the face. More recently, however, fillers have been increasingly used as an alternative to traditional surgical procedures for non-aesthetic indications. These indications include lagophthalmos, eyelid malpositions and orbital volume deficiency. The advantages of these filler injections are multiple: minimally invasive, repeatable, titratable and even reversible (depending on the product used). We review the current literature of functional uses of filler injections as mentioned above and evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of filler injections for this purpose.
We Fong Siah, Sonali Nagendran, Petrina Tan, Syed Mustafa Ali Ahmad, Andre S Litwin, Raman Malhotra
Aim To identify late outcomes of gold weights (GWs) and platinum chains (PCs) for upper eyelid loading in the management of lagophthalmos.
Methods A retrospective case series of upper eyelid GWs and PCs at a single centre over a 10-year period (2004–2013). Two independent, blinded assessors graded standard photographs for any weight-related morbidity (poor upper eyelid contour, weight prominence and migration).
Results Primary upper eyelid loading (high-tarsal technique) was performed in 154 eyelids of 136 patients (facial nerve palsy, n=99; non-paralytic, n=37). A total of 127 eyelids of 110 patients had primary GW insertion. Of these, 40.9% (52/127) had revision surgery: exchange of GW for PC (58%), GW repositioning (25%) and removal of GW (17%). Only 22.2% (6/27 eyelids) with primary PCs required revision surgery. In those not requiring revision surgery, photograph grading showed that both GWs and PCs had weight-related morbidity at late follow-up (median=37.5 months, range 12–110 vs median=33.5 month, range 15–106). GWs had significantly higher rate of weight prominence (p=0.001) and migration (p<0.001) compared with PCs. All PC revisions required one procedure only compared with 10% of GWs revisions requiring two or more procedures. Incidence of gold allergy was 7% (8/110 patients). There was no association between the choice of weight material, physical weight or suture material and eyelid morbidities.
Conclusion GWs were found to be associated with higher complications and twice more likely to require long-term revision surgery compared with PCs. Despite weight fixation at a high-tarsal location, prominence of PCs can still occur.
Adeela Malik & Naresh Joshi
A retrospective audit was conducted of four patients with upper eyelid gold weights (inserted >5 years ago) as treatment for facial nerve palsy-related lagophthalmos. Each patient was presently examined for lagophthalmos (“opened” or “closed”) at three different patient inclinations (lying flat at 0º, lying back at 45º, and sitting upright at 90º). In all four cases at 0º inclination, the upper eyelid remained “open” with significant lagophthalmos, and therefore the ocular surface was vulnerable. At other inclinations, 45º and 90º, the eyes were substantially “closed” and the ocular surface was protected. We discuss the mechanism by which this occurs. We suggest that patients fitted with upper eyelid gold weight implant who do not show adequate closure during postoperative clinical examination or signs of corneal show should try sleeping in a slightly upright position to aid ocular surface protection.
Siah, We Fong; Litwin, Andre S.; Nduka, Charles; Malhotra, Raman
Purpose: To report outcomes and complications of periorbital autologous fat grafting (AFG) in improving volume loss-related symmetry and function in facial nerve palsy patients and to assess patient satisfaction.
Methods: A retrospective, noncomparative review of all facial nerve palsy patients who underwent periorbital AFG at single center over a 4-year period. Two independent graders objectively assessed standard photographs for any change in volume loss and symmetry: pre- and postoperative periods (early, 0–2 months; intermediate, 3–9 months; and late, >10 months). Any adverse outcomes were recorded. Patient satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire survey.
Results: A total of 18 facial nerve palsy patients (13 females) underwent periorbital AFG between February 2011 and 2015. Mean age was 51.9 ± 15.3 years (range, 26–76). Mean follow up was 6.8 ± 4.6 (range, 0.5–15) months. Photographs of 14 patients were eligible for evaluation. Tear trough visibility (p < 0.01), infraorbital rim visibility (p = 0.03), and lower eyelid-cheek junction symmetry (p < 0.01) improved in the early postoperative period with persistence of improvement in the latter parameter at intermediate postoperative period (p < 0.01). Lagophthalmos significantly improved (p = 0.03) in the early postoperative period. Two patients developed cheek cellulitis and 4 had persistent malar edema (3 had existing edema). Questionnaire survey showed a reduction in daytime ocular lubricants and an improvement in nocturnal-lagophthalmos symptoms.
Conclusion: Periorbital AFG is a useful adjunct in improving symmetry and lagophthalmos in facial nerve palsy patients where volume loss is a contributory factor but effects were not long lasting. Patient satisfaction is high. Those with preexisting malar bags are at higher risk of developing persistent malar edema following periorbital AFG.