Farzad Pakdel, Mohammad Soleimani, Abolfazl Kasaei, Kambiz Ameli, Niloofar Pirmarzdashti, Ali Sadeghi Tari, Mehrbod Ghasempour & Ali Banafsheafshan
We aimed to show the outcome of very early endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (VE-EDCR) in a routine pool of patients with acute dacryocystitis (AD) and abscess formation compared with the standard late external dacryocystorhinostomy L-ExDCR.
This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study conducted from June 2013 to March 2016. Patients with AD and abscess formation were referred to our oculo-facial clinic in a university-based hospital. All patients received systemic antibiotics and were assigned to either of treatment groups. Patients in group 1 underwent late external transcutaneous DCR (L-ExDCR) and group 2 underwent EDCR within 3 days after first visit, named VE-EDCR. Primary outcome measure was success of surgery.
Forty-one eyes of 41 patients with acute suppurative AD, were included from June 2013 to March 2016. Twenty-two patients underwent VE-EDCR and 19 underwent L-ExDCR. Mean age of patients was 43.41 (SD = 19.84, range 14–98) years. Mean follow-up was 14 (SD = 2.4) months. Anatomic, functional, and overall success in L-ExDCR and VE-EDCR groups were (89.5 and 86.4%, p = 0.99) (89.5% and 86.4%, p = 0.99) (89.5% and 81.8%, p = 0.66) respectively. Mean duration of cellulitis in VE-EDCR and L-ExDCR were 8.00 (SD = 4.63) and 16.11 (SD = 11.58) days, respectively (p = 0.027). No remarkable adverse event was found.
Success of very early endonasal endoscopic DCR is comparable with the traditional late external DCR. Duration of cellulitis is shorter in VE-EDCR. This therapeutic approach can be considered in patients with acute suppurative dacryocystitis.
Tatyana Milman, Frederick A. Jakobiec, Sara E. Lally, Jerry A. Shields, Carol L. Shields, Ralph C. Eagle Jr.
Since the original description of “dacryadenoma” by Jakobiec and associates, the data on this unusual epibulbar lacrimal gland lesion remain sparse. The aim of this study was to characterize clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically this isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesion.
Retrospective observational case series.
Institutional pathology records between 2000 and 2019 were searched for all cases of isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions. Tissue from 3 normal lacrimal glands and 1 complex choristoma were included for comparative analysis. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings were recorded.
Four patients with isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions, 2 male and 2 female, with a median age of 18 years (range, 12-57) were identified. All patients presented with recent onset of unilateral pink-to-orange, well-circumscribed subepithelial juxtaforniceal (3/4, 75%), or nasal (1/4, 25%) bulbar conjunctival nodules, which were asymptomatic (3/4, 75%) or associated with foreign body sensation (1/4, 25%). When compared with the normal lacrimal gland and complex choristoma, all isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions were composed predominantly of variably dilated, branching tubular structures with pseudo-apocrine snouts, and either totally absent (2/2, 50%) or rare (2/2, 50%) ducts and rare acinar zymogen granules (3/4, 75%).
Our study confirms that a subset of isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions differs morphologically and immunohistochemically from normal lacrimal gland tissue and the lacrimal gland in a complex choristoma. These differences range from subtle to overt, suggesting that isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions may have originated from precursor cellular elements indigenous to the conjunctiva (hamartia) and grew into disorganized lacrimal gland tissue.
van Ipenburg J.A. · Damman J. · Paridaens D. · Verdijk R.M.
We describe the first presentation of a deep penetrating nevus (DPN) on the lacrimal caruncle. This lesion was seen in an 18-year-old woman presenting with hemorrhage of a long-standing pigmented mass on the caruncle. Histology showed a combined melanocytic neoplasm that consisted of two different melanocytic components. The differential diagnosis, based on histological examination, was a conventional melanocytic nevus, a Spitz nevus, or a combined melanocytic nevus. On the molecular level, one of the components revealed a mutation in the CTNNB1 gene encoding the β-catenin protein, while both components harbored a BRAF V600E mutation, without molecular features of a malignant melanocytic lesion. This presentation of a DPN of the lacrimal caruncle emphasizes the similarities of the caruncle with the skin.
Tal Koval, Ofira Zloto, Arkadi Yakirevitch, Guy J. Ben Simon, Joseph Ben-Shoshan, Elad Ben Artsi, Alon Weissman & Ayelet Priel
To compare the outcomes of combined endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endoDCR) with nasal septoplasty for deviation of the nasal septum to endoDCR alone in cases of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO).
A retrospective cohort study that included 107 consecutive patients with NLDO, who underwent endoDCR with or without concomitant nasal septoplasty in our institution between October 2009 and October 2017.
A total of 117 operations were performed (107 patients, 80.4% females; mean age ± SD 51.1 ± 19.5 years). Twenty-five (21.4%) endoscopic surgeries were combined with septoplasty (the endoDCR + septoplasty group), and 92 (78.6%) comprised endoDCR alone (the endoDCR group). There was no difference in anatomical success and functional success rates between the two groups (P = 0.76 and P = 0.18, respectively). There were no complications attributed to the septoplasty component of the surgical procedure.
Considerable numbers of patients undergoing endoDCR also require a septoplasty. Combining an additional procedure (septoplasty), that was not performed for its original indication but rather for facilitating the main surgical intervention (endoDCR), yields surgical success and associated complications equivalent to those of endoDCR alone.
Ofira Zloto, Tal Koval, Arkadi Yakirevich, Guy J Ben Simon, Alon Weissman, Elad Ben Artsi, Joseph Ben Shoshan & Ayelet Priel
The nasal mucosa is sacrificed in conventional endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies (EDCRs). Some surgeons, however, modify the technique by elevating a mucosal flap prior to creating the osteotomy with the aim of preserving the mucosa. To our knowledge, no clear-cut benefit of a mucosal flap has been established. The aim of this study is to examine the differences in surgical techniques and success rates of EDCRs with and without mucosal flap preservation.
We carried out a medical record review of all patients who underwent primary EDCR at the Goldschleger Eye Institute from October 2009 to October 2017. The following data were retrieved from the medical database and analyzed: patient demographics (age at diagnosis and gender), medical history, examination findings, surgical details, postoperative success, complications, and follow-up.
A total of 107 patients who underwent 117 EDCRs participated in the study. Fifty-one patients comprised the group without a mucosal flap and 56 patients comprised the group with mucosal flap preservation. The medical history, presenting complaints, and preoperative examination findings were similar for both groups. The surgical success rate was not significantly different between the groups (82.1% without flap vs. 86.8% with flap, P = 0.478, Chi-square).
The findings of this comparison of EDCRs with and without mucosal flap preservation in a large patient population revealed no differences in surgical success or complications rates between the two procedures and, therefore, no benefit for adding flap preservation to conventional EDCRs.
Christopher M. Stewart & Geoffrey E. Rose
To review the outcome for primary or revisional external dacryocystorhinostomy in patients with granulomatous polyangiitis.
Patients and methods
Retrospective case-note review to include age at presentation, duration of prior GPA, immunosuppression at time of surgery, nature of first lacrimal surgery, and symptomatic control.
Forty-eight patients (25 female; 52%) presented at an average age of 50.5 years and 7 (15%) had prior lacrimal surgery on one (5/7; 71%) or both sides. The duration of systemic GPA varied, with 40% having disease for up to 3 years prior to lacrimal referral, and 41/48 (85%) being on systemic immunosuppression. Forty-eight patients had 71 affected drainage pathways—having symptoms for an average of 22 months (range <1 month to 7 years). Surgery was undertaken on 70/71 systems—62/70 primary DCRs (20 unilateral; 8 simultaneous bilateral; 13 sequential bilateral). Of nine systems with persistent symptoms after prior surgery, eight underwent revisional surgery (six unilateral; one sequential bilateral). With a follow-up of 2.5 years (range 3 months to 14 years), volume symptoms were cured in all 70 cases. Flow symptoms were controlled in 58/62 (94%) systems after primary DCR, and all eight after revisional surgery. Of four sides with persistent epiphora, one was cured with revisional DCR and three with placement of Jones’ canalicular bypass tubes.
Mucoid discharge, dacryocystitis and recurrent conjunctivitis were cured in all patients with GPA after either primary and revisional surgery. Continued epiphora was controlled in most patients with additional closed procedures.
Elizabeth M. McElnea MD FRCOphth Aoife Smyth MBBCh BAO Alice E. Dutton MBBS Justin D. Friebel FRANZCO Charles S. Su FRANZCO
Tomomichi Nakayama, Akihide Watanabe, Saul Rajak, Yukito Yamanaka, Chie Sotozono
Purpose To investigate spontaneous resolution of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) beyond 12 months of age in Japanese infants.
Methods Retrospective, observational case series. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients diagnosed with CNLDO beyond 12 months of age at Kyoto Prefectural University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan. This study involved 155 cases of CNLDO in 133 Japanese infants diagnosed with CNLDO. All patients chose intervention with either dacryoendoscopic guided probing and stenting or conservative management. The proportion and age of patients who had spontaneous CLNDO resolution were analysed.
Results The patients were divided into two groups: (1) 62 patients with 70 obstructed nasolacrimal ducts (45%) in whom spontaneous resolution occurred and (2) 71 patients with 85 obstructed nasolacrimal ducts (55%) who underwent dacryoendoscopic guided probing and stenting. The mean age of spontaneous resolution was 17.8±5.3 months (range: 12.0–35.4 months). Dacryoendoscopic guided probing and stenting were successful in 83/85 (97.6%) of cases.
Conclusions Spontaneous resolution of CNLDO can occur in 45% of infants over the age of 12 months. Dacryoendoscopic guided stenting also has high success rates in this patient group, and both treatment options can be proposed to caregivers.
Shivcharan Lal Chandravanshi
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a common variation of ectodermal dysplasia, characterized by hypohidrosis (or anhidrosis), hypotrichosis, hypodontia, and other distinct facial features. Furthermore, ocular tissues of ectodermal origin may also be affected in this disease. The most common ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are dry eye, madarosis, alterations in the meibomian glands, abnormalities in the nasolacrimal duct, and infantile glaucoma. Herein, author reports a case of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a 12-year-old Indian boy with dry eye and lacrimal sac mucocele.
Norberto Mancera , Jasmina Bajric & Curtis E. Margo
We describe an otherwise healthy 24-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of one lacrimal gland. She was found to have modest elevation of serum IgG4 and high density of IgG4+ plasma cells in her lacrimal gland, ranging from 40% to 60% of IgG+ plasma cells. The patient transiently responded to systemic corticosteroids before treatment with rituximab. IgG4-rich reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the lacrimal gland is neither an established part of IgG4-related disease spectrum nor a known precursor lesion to lymphoma. Although there is a plausible risk of transforming to IgG4-related disease or to lymphoma, the biological potential and natural history of IgG4-rich reactive lymphoid hyperplasia remains to be determined.