Jakobiec F.A. · Cortes Barrantes P. · Ma L. · Lee N.G.
A 55-year-old woman developed a painless, non-ulcerated left upper eyelid swelling over 6 months. Examination disclosed a fluctuant mass that permitted movement of the eyelid skin over the lesion. A full-thickness eyelid resection contained a well-encapsulated cyst with milky contents that was predominantly located in the tarsus. The cyst’s lining was partially composed of segments of ciliated respiratory-type and non-keratinizing squamous epithelia. Immunohistochemical evaluation with cytokeratins 17, 18, and 19 confirmed the staining pattern of a respiratory-type epithelial cell (whether or not cilia were present in the non-squamous epithelial zones). In the squamous region, entirely different cytokeratin results were obtained vis-a-vis the non-squamous regions of the lining. The current lesion is interpreted as congenital and representing an in situ persistence of embryonic ciliated glandular epithelium that normally exists only transitorily. A more remote possibility is that the lesion was the result of ectopic epithelial cells displaced from an adjacent sinus. A recurrence has not developed during 6 months of follow-up.
Tang, Tina; Brownstein, Seymour; Chen, Henry; Jordan, David R.; Iacob, Codrin E.; Blanco, Paula; Farmer, James
Purpose: Intratarsal keratinous cysts (IKCs) are a recently described entity that is frequently misdiagnosed clinically as chalazia and mislabeled in the literature as “intratarsal epidermal inclusion cysts” or “epidermoid cysts.” It is important to accurately diagnose IKCs and distinguish them from chalazia because IKCs require a complete surgical excision and can exhibit multiple recurrences following curettage. The authors performed a retrospective case series to further elucidate the pathogenesis of IKCs and to determine the diagnostically optimal panel of stains for diagnosis.
Methods: A study group of 8 specimens of IKCs and control specimens of epidermal inclusion cysts were obtained from their pathology laboratories. The authors compared the histological and immunohistochemical profile of IKCs and epidermal inclusion cysts by staining sections from each specimen with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Masson trichrome, cytokeratin 5, cytokeratin 17, carcinoembryonic antigen, and epithelial membrane antigen. The immunoreactivity data were then analyzed using a 2-tailed Mann-Whitney test, assuming a nonparametric population (p < 0.05 is significant).
Results: Histopathologically, IKCs are embedded in the tarsus lined by stratified squamous epithelium with an inner undulating cuticle filled with a compact keratinous-appearing material. The authors demonstrate that IKCs develop progressively from dilated meibomian ducts to the formation of complete cysts with their markers. The most valuable immunochemical stains to diagnose IKC were cytokeratin 17, carcinoembryonic antigen, and epithelial membrane antigen (p < 0.05 with each).
Conclusions: These findings provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis and the immunohistochemical findings of this relatively new entity allowing for more appropriate diagnosis of IKCs aiming to reduce future complications from their management.
Natalie Wolkow, Frederick A. Jakobiec, Michael K. Yoon
A 38-year-old woman presented with multiple bilateral recurrent eyelid cysts. Her medical history was notable for Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the lesions were intratarsal keratinous cysts. They were similar in appearance to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts and closely resembled odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw. Eyelid cysts occur in up to 40% of patients with Gorlin syndrome; however, their description has been cursory and, for the most part, outside of the ophthalmic literature. Although ophthalmologists are familiar with the periocular basal cell carcinomas that occur in patients with Gorlin syndrome, up to 10% of patients never develop a basal cell carcinoma, but they may manifest other ophthalmic findings. Awareness of these other features may contribute to the earlier diagnosis of the syndrome. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features of intratarsal keratinous cysts in Gorlin syndrome, comparing them to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts, other eyelid cysts, and jaw cysts that also characterize this syndrome. We briefly review the ocular and systemic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome and recent genetic and therapeutic developments so that the eyelid cysts may be appreciated within the appropriate context of Gorlin syndrome as a whole.
Leon Rafailov, Neena Mirani, Paul D. Langer
A 59-year-old woman was referred with a 1-year history of an apparent chalazion. Examination revealed a partially mobile, nontender, well-demarcated, firm, compressible nodule attached to the anterior tarsus, with features characteristic of an intratarsal keratinous cyst, a lesion frequently misdiagnosed (Fig 1A). Dissection revealed a fibrous capsule with a wide base continuous with the tarsal surface (Fig 1B). Pathology demonstrates keratinizing squamous epithelium without a granular layer lined by an eosinophilic undulating cuticle containing string-like keratin debris (Fig 1C). Excision requires a cutaneous incision, exposure of the capsule, amputation from the tarsus, and generous cautery at the base (Fig 1D); recurrences should be treated with full-thickness tarsectomy. (Magnified version of Fig 1A-D is available online at www.aaojournal.org).
S N Rajak, C James and D Selva
Meibomian gland ductal cysts (MGDCs) and steatocystomas are epithelial lined, keratin-containing lesions of the eyelids. MDGCs are variably called tarsal keratinous cysts, intratarsal keratinous cysts of the meibomian glands, intratarsal inclusion cysts, epidermal cysts and epidermoid cysts. Both lesions are poorly described in the literature. We report a series of seven MGDC and steatocystomas, and examine their clinical, pathological and immunohistochemistry features and their management and outcomes.
Patients and methods
A retrospective review of case notes and histopathology slides of all MGDCs and steatocystomas identified at one major histopathology service in South Australia between 2013 and 2015.
Seven cases were identified, with an average age of 64. The lesions range from 4 to 18 mm diameter and are firm, well-circumscribed and non-tender, and sometimes the keratin-filled cyst protrudes visibly under the tarsal conjunctiva. Two cases were previously misdiagnosed as chalazia but recurred after incision and curettage. Histologically, these lesions are lined by squamous epithelium but lack a well-formed stratum granulosum and can be distinguished by their immunohistochemical staining characteristics. Complete excision, including a wedge of underlying tarsal plate for MDGCs, is curative for with a follow up of 12–36 months.
MGDCs and steatocystomas should be included in the differential of benign eyelid lesions. Diagnosing and differentiating these lesions from chalazia is important for determining the optimal management strategy.