Adam R. Sweeney, Christopher R. Dermarkarian, Katherine J. Williams, Richard C. Allen & Michael T. Yen
Purpose: To report the efficacy of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) frontalis suspension for blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia and postoperative botulinum toxin requirements.
Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients with blepharospasm and eyelid apraxia who underwent frontalis suspension. The primary outcome was a surgical success, defined by surgeon- and patient-reported success in postoperative eyelid opening. Comparative statistical analyses of botulinum toxin dosage and treatment intervals were performed amongst patients before and after frontalis suspension ptosis repair.
Results: Five patients (10 eyelids) met the study criteria, of which 40% were female. Mean age was 63.2 years. All patients had successful surgical outcomes based on physician-reported and patient reported satisfaction with the postoperative eyelid opening. Average follow-up was 14 months. Preoperative botulinum toxin treatments averaged 80.4 units (range 32–110, SD 33.2) to the periocular region over an average of 9.6-week intervals. Postoperative botulinum toxin treatments averaged 61.4 units (range 24–110, SD 34.7) to the periocular region over an overage of 9.8-week intervals. No patients experienced postoperative exposure keratopathy, extrusion of the sling, or postoperative infection.
Conclusions: Frontalis suspension using PTFE suture in the setting of blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia was found to be a safe and effective procedure. Frontalis suspension in this population is not a substitute for botulinum toxin treatment but may allow for reduced treatment dosage. Frontalis suspension appears to increase patient functionality with improved eyelid opening in patients with blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia.
Nora Mahmoud, Mohammed,Mahmoud, Ahmed Kamal, Mohammed Ahmed, Abdelhafez,Mostafa, Mohammed Diab
To compare the functional and cosmetic outcomes of two different frontalis sling techniques for correction of severe unilateral congenital ptosis: single triangle and Fox pentagon techniques using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) suture.
This randomized controlled trial included 60 eyes of 60 patients with severe unilateral simple congenital ptosis and poor levator function (≤4 mm). Participants were randomly assigned for either single triangle or Fox pentagon frontalis suspension using ePTFE suture. Functional outcome measures were margin reflex distance (MRD1), palpebral fissure height (VFH), and lagophthalmos. Cosmetic outcome parameters (lid contour, lid crease, and height symmetry) were graded as 3 (excellent), 2 (good), or 1 (poor), with a minimum of 18 months’ follow-up.
At final follow-up, there was a significant improvement in the MRD1 and VFH in both groups, with no statistical difference ( P = 0.9). Both groups showed comparative cosmetic results regarding lid height symmetry, crease, and contour. The patients in the single-triangle group showed more rapid recovery of postoperative edema and lagopthalmos with less visible forehead scarring. There were no serious ePTFE sling–related complications.
In our study cohort, the single-triangle and Fox pentagon frontalis suspension techniques had similar outcomes with respect to MRD1 and VFH and comparable cosmetic results. However, the single-triangle technique avoids two forehead incisions and was associated with less postoperative edema, lagophthalmos, and scarring.
Xiaobo Zhou, Ming Zhu, Lin Lv, Rui Jin, Jun Yang, Fei Liu
To establish a treatment protocol for severe blepharoptosis. This protocol helps to achieve improved accuracy and more stable correction outcome.
The levator muscle function was evaluated pre-operation. When the levator function was less than 1 mm, the frontalis suspension technique was performed; when the levator function was more than 1 mm, the techniques of levator resection, combined excision of the tarsus and levator, and tarsus–levator–CFS suspension were performed sequentially until a satisfactory correction result was achieved.
A total of 389 patients with severe ptosis (561 eyes) were included; 102 eyes received levator resection, 314 eyes received combined excision of the tarsus and levator, 53 eyes received tarsus–levator–CFS suspension, and 92 eyes received frontalis suspension. In total, a satisfactory correction result was achieved in 466 eyes, while 95 cases still presented with under-correction. The symmetry findings showed that 107 (27%) cases presented good symmetry, 203 (52%) cases presented moderate symmetry, and 79 (21%) showed poor symmetry.
This new treatment protocol overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional strategy by standardizing the correction procedure, leading to improved accuracy and more stable correction results.
Akaishi, Patricia; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Cruz, Antonio A. V.
Purpose: To analyze the upper eyelid contour of patients with unilateral congenital ptosis who underwent single-strip frontalis suspension.
Methods: The authors compared the upper eyelid shape of the right and left eyes of 10 patients who underwent unilateral frontalis suspension with a single strip of autogenous fascia. At a mean postoperative time of 10.1 ± 4.01 months, the image J software was used to measure the ratio between the nasal and temporal areas of the upper half of the palpebral fissure. The midpupil upper eyelid distance (MRD1) was also measured on the photos with the same software. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the data.
Results: Postoperative MRD1 ranged from 2.5 to 4.7 mm (median = 3.8) on the affected side. The MRD1 for nonoperated eyelid ranged from 1.8 to 5.0 mm (median = 3.5). On the operated side, the temporal areas ranged from 50.3 to 85.7 mm2 (median 65.2) and nasal areas ranged from 41.5 to 72.3 (the median was 60.1). In the contralateral, nonoperated palpebral fissures, the temporal areas ranged from 42.7 to 94.3 mm2 (median = 54.5) and the nasal areas ranged from 36.8 to 86.1 mm2 (median 52.3). The T/N ratio distributions were almost identical between groups, ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 (median = 1.1) in the operated eyes and from 0.9 to 1.3 (median = 1.1) in the fellow eyes.
Conclusions: In autogenous fascia frontalis suspension procedures, the upper eyelid contour of the ptotic eyelids can be adequately normalized with a single area of traction on the tarsal plate.
Andrea Molinari, MD; Daniel T. Weaver, MD; Todd A. Goldblum, MD; David Silbert, MD; Sebastian P. Lopez, MD; Noelle Matta, CO
To demonstrate the benefits of using braided polyester in the management of severe or recurrent ptosis in children and young adults and to compare the efficacy of two surgical techniques.
Retrospective, non-randomized record review of 30 patients (43 eyelid procedures) affected by congenital or acquired severe ptosis who underwent frontalis suspension with braided polyester from 2008 to 2016. Two surgical techniques were compared: the base-down triangle and the Fox pentagon, both of which were performed using a closed technique. Functional success was defined as clearing of the visual axis. Complications and results were examined.
Functional success was obtained in 39 eyes of 43 procedures. Marginal reflex distance increased an average of 2.51 mm with the base-down triangle technique and 1.70 mm with the Fox pentagon technique (P = .05). The vertical palpebral fissure height increased an average of 4.60 mm with the base-down triangle technique and 2.45 mm with the Fox pentagon technique (P < .001). Mean follow-up duration was 38.6 months. Complications included untied suture (n = 2), suture dehiscence (n = 1), cellulitis (n = 2), and granuloma (n = 1).
Braided polyester was found to be a safe, effective, easy-to-handle, and low-cost sling material for frontalis suspension and should be considered for clinical use, especially in developing countries where the cost and availability of other materials represents a significant barrier to treatment. In the authors’ experience, the base-down triangle technique appeared superior to the Fox pentagon technique.
Khyati P Shah, Bipasha Mukherjee
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of silicone rods as frontalis sling for correction of ptosis associated with poor Bell’s phenomenon in specific situations. Materials And Methods: A retrospective interventional case series of 25 eyes of 19 patients who underwent frontalis suspension surgery with silicone rods for ptosis correction from May 2006 to April 2011, was performed. Inclusion criteria included severe ptosis with poor Bell’s phenomenon. Patient evaluation included clinical history and other relevant parameters of ptosis measurement. Final outcome measurements included postoperative lid height, lagophthalmos, complications, need for reoperation, and patient satisfaction. Results: Mean age at presentation was 25.72 ± 2.2 years. The sex ratio of male: female was 1.11. The causes of ptosis included chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) in 11 eyes (44%), oculopharyngeal dystrophy in 2 (8%), third cranial nerve palsy in 7 (28%), traumatic in three eyes (12%), and iatrogenic postoperative ptosis (after orbital tumor excision) in two eyes (8%). The postoperative palpebral fissure height and margin reflex distance improved significantly (P = 0.0001). Extrusion of the sling and granuloma formation occurred in two eyes each, and these patients had to undergo sling removal. One patient developed mild exposure keratopathy and was managed conservatively. Conclusion: Silicone is an effective material for use in frontalis suspension in the management of severe ptosis with poor Bell’s phenomenon. The elastic nature of silicone rod makes it an ideal suspensory material for patients with CPEO or third nerve palsy.