Austin Bach, DO, MPH; Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, MD, PhD; Roberto Warman, MD
Congenital ptosis is a troubling eye condition for pediatric ophthalmologists. There are many considerations to contemplate when deciding when to operate and which technique to use.
A retrospective chart review of 69 pediatric patients treated for congenital ptosis using a double rhomboid frontalis sling with a nylon suture at a single tertiary care center.
For patients with more than 6 months of follow-up, there were 38 patients with 46 primary surgeries (22 [58%] males and 16 [42%] females). The average age at the first surgery was 39.34 ± 33.18 months. There was a mean follow-up time of 51.87 ± 53.79 months. There were 7 children who needed one revision and 1 child who needed a second revision, equaling a 23.9% rate of revision. Patients who had surgery before the age of 3 years had a statistically significant likelihood of needing a second surgery (chi-square test = 7.246, P = .007, 95% confidence interval = 0.027 to 0.687). It was also statistically significant (P < .05) that, throughout childhood, older patients were less likely to need a revision.
A double rhomboid frontalis sling using a nylon suture is an effective technique to treat congenital ptosis. This technique is easy to master and has a low cost compared to techniques involving autografts and allografts. It is also important to advise the family of the likelihood of a second surgery if there is a need to operate at a young age.
Abhijit Naik, Anamika Patel, Nandini Bothra, Lapam Panda, Milind N Naik, Suryasnata Rath
Purpose: To report endoscope-assisted fascia lata harvest (EAFH) as a minimally-invasive technique for correction of severe blepharoptosis. Methods: This was a retrospective case series between January 2013 and April 2017. Medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent frontalis suspension by EAFH in the study period were reviewed and outcome was analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (10 males) were included in the study. Mean age of the group was 18.14 + 17.03 years (range 4-65 years) and 11 patients had simple congenital blepharoptosis. Blepharophimosis syndrome was seen in 3 patients. Eleven patients had bilateral blepharoptosis. The mean preoperative and postoperative MRD1 was –1.60 ± 0.87 mm and +2.12 ± 1.37 mm respectively. Mean lengths of the incision and fascial harvest were 2.25 ± 0.43 cm and 13.0 ± 2.35 cm (range 10-17 cm) respectively. The median follow-up of patients was 4.57 + 4.03 months (range 1-15 months). Complications included a wound dehiscence in two patients and these were resutured. The donor sites healed well in all patients leaving a small thigh scar and none needed scar revision. Conclusion: EAFH is a promising minimally-invasive technique performed with a small incision and achieved adequate length of fascial harvest.
Özlem Ural, MD; Mehmet C. Mocan, MD; Ugur Erdener, MD
To evaluate the therapeutic benefits of frontalis suspension as a repeat intervention in congenital blepharoptosis.
METHODS:Pediatric patients diagnosed as having congenital ptosis who had at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up were included in this retrospective study. A successful outcome was defined as a postoperative margin-reflex distance of 3 mm or greater. The chi-square, Student’s t, and Mann–Whitney U tests were used in comparisons.
RESULTS:Eighty-four eyes of 77 patients with a follow-up period of 8.4 ± 0.7 years were included. The initial surgery was levator resection in 29 (34.5%) eyes and frontalis suspension in 55 (65.5%) eyes. Frontalis suspension was performed for all repeat interventions (n = 20). Surgical success was achieved in 61.9% of patients with single surgery (75.9% for levator resection vs 54.5% for frontalis suspension; P= .06) and in 77.4% of patients following repeated surgeries (93.1% vs 69.1% for patients who initially underwent levator resection vs frontalis suspension, respectively; P = .012). A higher success rate was associated with better preoperative levator function (P = .01) and a higher margin-reflex distance (P = .004), and was inversely proportional to ptosis severity (P = .04).
Frontalis suspension as a repeat intervention for congenital blepharoptosis is associated with a further increase in long-term anatomic success rates and should be considered when initial procedures fail or remain inadequate.
Smriti Bansal, Sima Das
Cyclic oculomotor nerve paresis and spasm are a rare disorder characterized by alternating spastic and paretic phase of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. A 26-year-old male presented with abnormal right eyelid movements since early childhood. Examination findings were consistent with diagnosis of right eye cyclic oculomotor nerve palsy. A paretic phase with complete upper eyelid ptosis, exotropia, hypotropia and dilatation of the pupil was followed by a phase of orthotropia, the absence of ptosis and normal pupil size. The whole cycle was of about 100 s duration with patient having no voluntary control over the eyelid movements and ocular alignment. Systemic evaluation and neuroimaging were normal. A tarsofrontal silicone sling surgery done for the ptosis correction decreased the eyelid movements during different phases of the cycle.
Anuj Mehta, Mayuresh Naik, Sangeeta Abrol, Prerna Garg, Mukesh Joshi
To review cases of granuloma formation after sling surgery with a view to find out possible aetiological factors and propose a further plan of management
Materials and methods
A retrospective analysis of 120 eyes of 108 patients who underwent frontalis sling surgery with silicone rod from Jan 2008 to Dec 2015 was conducted. All patients with severe ptosis and poor levator function who underwent frontalis sling surgery with silicone rod were included in the study irrespective of the cause of ptosis and method of passing the sling. A complete ophthalmic and ptosis examination was done. In all the cases, the prolene suture was tied over the sleeve to tighten it and it was buried along with the silicone rod in forehead pocket. All the cases with granuloma formation were first subjected to a microbiological examination including culture and sensitivity to antibiotics. All the patients were given a trial of antibiotics.
We encountered 10 cases of granuloma in 120 eyes of 108 patients operated during this period. The duration between time of surgery and presentation varied from 2 weeks to 4 months. The microbiological examination revealed positive culture in 5 cases. None of the cases responded to the course of antibiotics given for 10 days. The histopathological examination done in 5 cases (2 of them culture positive and 3 of them culture negative) revealed granulomatous inflammation of non-specific type. The sling was explanted in all cases which resulted in prompt resolution of granuloma in 7–10 days.
The granuloma is primarily due to exposure of the sling itself or the sleeve enveloping the sling or the suture tied around the sleeve thereby. They do not respond to antibiotics but respond very well to explantation. These patients can be taken up for re-sling surgery after a waiting period of 3 months.