Assadi, Fatima Amanath; Narayana, Shivananda; Yadalla, Dayakar; Rajagopalan, Jayagayathri; Joy, Anupama
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in corneal topography, cycloplegic refraction, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after ptosis correction surgery in patients with congenital ptosis.
Our study represents a prospective observational study conducted on 27 eyes of 21 patients with congenital ptosis. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation, cycloplegic refraction, and baseline Orbscan prior to ptosis surgery. At 6 months postoperative review, the cycloplegic refraction and Orbscan were repeated to evaluate the changes in these parameters. The main outcome measures in our study were Steepest K, Inferior-Superior Asymmetry (I-S Asymmetry), cycloplegic refraction and BCVA.
A significant decrease in Steepest K postoperatively (P < 0.001) was noted. Superior K and Inferior K also decreased, but the decrease in Inferior K was statistically significant (P = 0.044). However, change in I-S Asymmetry was not significant. Variation in BCVA, and cycloplegic sphere and cylinder was minimal. Sim K astigmatism, Surface Regularity Index, I-S Asymmetry and Central Corneal Thickness did not show significant variation.
Ptotic eyelid constantly presses on the cornea causing significant changes in corneal contour and surface remodeling. This pressure when relieved, results in significant flattening and regression of anterior corneal surface to its near normal anatomy. This further resulted in improvement of corneal surface irregularity and symmetry.
Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Abdolalizadeh, Parya
Brittany A. Simmons, MD, Thomas J.E. Clark, MD, Justin J. Kuiper, MD, Bridget M. Zimmerman, PhD, Jeffrey A. Nerad, MD, Richard C. Allen, MD, PhD, Keith D. Carter, MD, Erin M. Shriver, MD
A retrospective chart review of 251 new frontalis slings suggests that surgical closure technique significantly affects the rates of postoperative infection and exposure. The role of prophylactic systemic antibiotics in reducing infection and exposure is less clear.
Diniz, Stefania B.; Akaishi, Patricia M.; Cruz, Antonio A. V.
To report the effect of frontalis linkage without intraoperative eyelid elevation for the management of myopathic ptosis.
Retrospective analysis of 21 (42 eyelids) myopathic patients with bilateral ptosis who were operated between 1999 and 2017. All patients had orbicularis weakness and poor or absent Bell’s phenomenon. Surgery consisted of using an autogenous fascia sling to link the tarsal plate to the frontalis muscle without any degree of intraoperative eyelid elevation. The main outcome measures were margin reflex distance, brow height and degree of brow excursion and degree of lagophthalmos, and exposure keratitis.
After surgery, there were significant changes (p <0.0001) in both margin reflex distance and brow position. Mean margin reflex distance increased to 1.4 mm ± 1.34 DP and with full frontalis contraction, it reached 3.0 mm ± 1.73 DP, while mean brow position decreased 1.6 mm ± 1.59 SD, p < 0.0001. Postoperative lagophthalmos was not detected in 31 (74%) eyes. In the remaining 11 eyes (26%), lagophthalmos ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 mm (mean = 1.7 mm ± 0.74 DP). Mild inferior superficial keratitis was detected in 14 eyes (33.3%) of 7 patients only 3 of which had lagophthalmos. One patient needed additional surgery to correct unilateral eyelid retraction. Overall, 81.81% of the patients were pleased with the procedure.
Myopathic ptosis can be alleviated with a minimal amount of lagophthalmos by just linking the tarsal plate to the frontalis muscle without lifting the eyelid margin intraoperatively.
Sergio Petroni, Paolo Capozzi, Rosa Parrilla, Gaetano Zinzanella & Luca Buzzonetti
Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of a frontalis sling using deep temporal fascia in the treatment of severe congenital ptosis (SCP).
Methods: A retrospective, interventional case series was performed. The study involved 25 patients with SCP (>4 mm). All patients underwent frontalis sling surgery with deep temporal fascia between 2004 and 2012 with a follow-up period of 12 months at a minimum. Data regarding eyelid position, eyelid symmetry, cosmetic outcomes, and postoperative complications were evaluated.
Results: The mean age at surgery was 7.68 years (range 4–17 years) with an average follow-up of 60 months (range is 12–108 months). The functional success rate was 88% (22/25). Ptosis recurred in 8% (2/25) of patients, overcorrection was present in 4% (1/25) of patients. The patients with ptosis recurrence underwent reoperation.
The preoperative margin-to-reflex distance (MRD1) was −0.85±0.87 mm (range, −2.5 to + 0.5 mm), while the postoperative MRD1 was + 2.1 ± 1.05 mm (range, −1.5 to + 4 mm) (p < .0001). Lid symmetry (asymmetry < of 1 mm of MRD1 between the two eyes) was present in all the successful cases.
Postoperative complications included transient exposure keratopathy (32%) and inflammatory brow reaction (8%).
Conclusions: Frontalis sling operation with deep fascia temporalis is very effective in the treatment of SCP with excellent long-term functional and cosmetic successes.
Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Sharma, Pranjali; Nayak, Arpita; Moharana, Ruby; Naik, Milind N.
Purpose: To compare outcomes of frontalis sling (FS) silicone and levator resection (LR) in ptosis associated with monocular elevation deficiency.
Methods: Retrospective interventional comparative case series of FS and LR in monocular elevation deficiency associated ptosis. Favorable outcome was defined as difference in margin reflex distance 1 of ≤1 mm between the 2 eyes in unilateral cases and margin reflex distance 1 of 4 mm in bilateral cases at last follow-up visit.
Results: One hundred four eyes of 95 patients were included. Median age at surgery was 14 years, and the mean follow-up period was 19.75 ± 34.55 months. Ptosis was severe in 91 (87.5%) patients. Associated Marcus Gunn jaw-winking (MGJW) phenomenon was seen in 43 (42%) patients. Frontalis sling was performed in 76 (73%) and LR in 28 (27%). Mean pre- and postoperative margin reflex distance 1 were −1.27 ± 2.17 mm and 2.18 ± 1.49 mm (p < 0.0001). The mean improvement in margin reflex distance 1 was significantly more with FS (4.46 ± 2.19) compared with LR (1.85 + 2.5) (p < 0.0001). There were no cases of exposure keratopathy requiring reversal of surgery in either group. The number of resurgeries required was 42 (55%) in the FS group and 10 (36%) (p = 0.08) in the LR group. Favorable outcome was seen in 54 (71%) in FS group and 16 (57%) (p = 0.17) in LR group.
Conclusions: When compared with levator resection, frontalis suspension with silicone gives a better eyelid elevation but has greater regression requiring more resurgeries. In spite of a poor Bells phenomenon, exposure keratopathy is not a concern.
Weaver, Daniel T.
Purpose of review Blepharoptosis is a common problem encountered in the pediatric ophthalmology clinic. The presentation is obvious to both parents and referring physicians and often prompts urgent consultation. The current classification and management of childhood ptosis will be reviewed.
Recent findings Recent refinements in techniques utilizing new materials hold promise for better, more predictable outcomes and improved long-term results. Autogenous tensor tendon fascia lata harvested from the patient’s thigh remains the gold standard for many ptosis surgeons in frontalis suspension; however, other materials are commonly utilized, including silicone rod, Gore-Tex (ePTFE; W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA), Mersilene polyester fiber mesh and Ethibond braided polyester (Ethicon US LLC, Somerville, New Jersey, USA), Supramid monofilament nylon (S. Jackson, Inc, Alexandria, Virginia, USA), prolene, and banked fascia lata. Other techniques include levator resection, posterior approach levatorpexy, and Muller’s muscle conjunctival resection both with and without superior tarsectomy. Recent studies suggest that ptosis repair can be effectively combined with strabismus surgery.
Summary The management of ptosis in infants and children demands a structured and disciplined approach to avoid the development of amblyopia and long-term visual compromise. Underlying systemic problems must be identified and surgical planning discussed in a timely fashion with caregivers. Recent studies help to further define the proper timing of surgical intervention and the optimal techniques to provide the best long-term results for these patients.
Lee, Ju-Hyang; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck
Purpose: Undercorrected blepharoptosis can be encountered after frontalis sling operation. Revision surgery for undercorrection has commonly involved introducing a new sling material. We describe and evaluate a simple surgical technique to correct undercorrection by adjusting preexisting fascia.
Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series of patients undergoing sling revision between February 2010 and February 2017. Skin incision was made on the previous incision line. Careful dissection was performed superiorly to identify a preexisting fascia, and the dissected fascia was reattached to the tarsal plate using nonabsorbable sutures with adjustments for eyelid height and contour. The success of the procedure was defined as less than 1 mm of difference in the marginal reflex distance 1 of both eyes without any contour deformity.
Results: Twenty-one eyelids in 18 patients were included with a mean follow-up of 17.5 months (range 6–48) and a mean age of 14.7 years (range 5–57). All patients had undergone frontalis sling with autogenous fascia lata for congenital ptosis. Undercorrection due to recurrent ptosis was found in 12 eyelids, and contour deformity such as temporal ptosis was found in 9 eyelids. The mean time interval between previous frontalis sling operation and sling revision was 6.8 years. Nineteen patients (90.5%) achieved surgical success and a cosmetically acceptable appearance.
Conclusion: Sling revision is a simple and effective method with low perioperative morbidity for cases of undercorrection or contour deformity following frontalis sling operation using autogenous fascia lata, even long after the primary procedure.
Revere, Karen E.; Binenbaum, Gil; Li, Jonathan; Mills, Monte D.; Katowitz, William R.; Katowitz, James A.
Purpose: The authors sought to compare the clinical outcomes of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery in children.
Methods: Retrospective, single-center cohort study of children requiring both ptosis and strabismus surgery on the same eye. Simultaneous surgeries were performed during a single anesthetic event; sequential surgeries were performed at least 7 weeks apart. Outcomes were ptosis surgery success (margin reflex distance 1 ≥ 2 mm, good eyelid contour, and good eyelid crease); strabismus surgery success (ocular alignment within 10 prism diopters of orthophoria and/or improved head position); surgical complications; and reoperations.
Results: Fifty-six children were studied, 38 had simultaneous surgery and 18 sequential. Strabismus surgery was performed first in 38/38 simultaneous and 6/18 sequential cases. Mean age at first surgery was 64 months, with mean follow up 27 months. A total of 75% of children had congenital ptosis; 64% had comitant strabismus. A majority of ptosis surgeries were frontalis sling (59%) or Fasanella-Servat (30%) procedures. There were no significant differences between simultaneous and sequential groups with regards to surgical success rates, complications, or reoperations (all p > 0.28).
Conclusions: In the first comparative study of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery, no advantage for sequential surgery was seen. Despite a theoretical risk of postoperative eyelid malposition or complications when surgeries were performed in a combined manner, the rate of such outcomes was not increased with simultaneous surgeries. Performing ptosis and strabismus surgery together appears to be clinically effective and safe, and reduces anesthesia exposure during childhood.
Ju-Hyang Lee, Yoon-Duck Kim
Unilateral congenital ptosis with poor levator function of ≤4 mm continues to be a difficult challenge for the oculoplastic surgeon. Surgical correction can be accomplished with unilateral frontalis suspension, maximal levator resection, or bilateral frontalis suspension with or without levator muscle excision of the normal eyelid. Bilateral frontalis suspension was proposed by Beard and Callahan to overcome the challenge of postoperative asymmetry, allowing symmetrical lagophthalmos on downgaze, postoperatively. However, most surgeons and patients prefer unilateral correction on the abnormal eyelid either with a frontalis suspension or maximal levator resection. Frontalis suspension may be performed through the various surgical techniques using different autogenous or exogenous materials. Autogenous fascia lata is considered the material of choice with low recurrence rates but carries the drawbacks of the difficulty of harvesting and postoperative morbidity from the second surgical site. Recent reports have suggested that maximal levator resection provides improved cosmesis, a more natural contour, and avoids brow scars. Although both treatments have shown to have similar success rates, there is much debate about what the most favorable method for treating severe unilateral ptosis. We review the literature on the various surgical treatments for unilateral severe congenital ptosis, including the rationale, advantages and disadvantages of each technique.