Katja Ullrich & Raman Malhotra
Background: Facial nerve palsy (FNP) is known to worsen Meibomian gland dysfunction on the affected side. Chronic Meibomian gland dysfunction leads to a variant of upper eyelid marginal entropion associated with excessive tarsal curling, termed Meibomian gland inversion (MGI). Surgical correction with grey line split, tarsoplasty and anterior lamellar repositioning (GLS surgery) appears to further improve the ocular surface in these patients who have previously undergone upper eyelid loading.
Methods: Retrospective, 3 year, non-comparative, single-centre study of patients with FNP identified as having MGI and treated by GLS surgery under the supervision of a single surgeon. We present specific examination findings and a useful test (cotton tip test) to determine suitability for GLS surgery. We assessed changes in symptoms and CADS (Cornea, static Asymmetry, Dynamic function and Synkinesis) score, along with cosmetic grading of lash loss and contour and report complications.
Results: 23 patients with acquired FNP underwent GLS surgery for MGI with or without lash ptosis. 17 out of the 23 patients (74%) demonstrated an improvement in their CADS score after GLS surgery. Seven patients had insufficient records with scores missing and no conclusion could be reached for this group. Improvement of corneal staining, static and dynamic symmetry were all statistically significant. No patient worsened. The cosmetic outcome including lashes, lid contour and lid margin appearance is acceptable. Whilst it is possible to achieve minimal difference between the operated and unoperated eyelids, many patients will have a small difference.
Conclusion: We report outcomes of MGI treatment and useful diagnostic features.
Peihsuan Lin, Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi, Jacqueline Mupas-Uy, Maria Suzanne Sabundayo, Yasuhiro Takahasi, Hirohiko Kakizaki
To summarize proposed causative factors and the outcomes of surgical practices for involutional lower eyelid entropion.
We reviewed the literature on proposed causative factors and the outcomes of surgical practices for involutional lower eyelid entropion, searched on PubMed.
Vertical and horizontal laxities of the lower eyelid, and overriding of the preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle onto the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle have been proposed as the major causes of involutional lower eyelid entropion. Treatment procedures have been developed over the years to address one or more of these causative factors.
Various causative factors and treatment procedures have been advocated to explain and correct involutional lower eyelid entropion. The appropriate procedure is chosen according to the patient’s condition, such as the presence of vertical laxity, horizontal laxity, and orbicularis oculi muscle overriding. A combination of these procedures to correct multiple factors further decreases the recurrence rate.
Stephanie M Young, Yoon-Duck Kim, Kyung In Woo
Purpose To describe a modified everting suture procedure which can be used in patients with mild to moderate epiblepharon who are undergoing general anaesthesia for surgical correction of coexisting ophthalmic conditions.
Methods A prospective, interventional, non-comparative case series on patients with mild to moderate epiblepharon who underwent the modified everting suture procedure using permanent nylon sutures while under general anaesthesia for other ophthalmic surgery, from May 2014 to May 2016, in a single tertiary institution. Main outcome measures were correction of epiblepharon, recurrence rate and complications.
Results There were a total of 29 patients. Mean age was 5.7±4.1 years (range 1.5–20 years). Twenty (69.0%) were male, 31.0% were female. All had concomitant surgery under general anaesthesia for levator resection (75.9%), frontalis sling (17.2%), strabismus surgery (3.4%) and coloboma correction (3.4%). Mean follow-up was 18.1±9.1 months. All patients were well corrected at 1 and 6 months postoperative follow-up. At 1 year after surgery, 28 (96.6%) were well corrected while one patient (3.4%) was undercorrected. At last follow-up, the overall recurrence rate was 6.9%, with a mean time from surgery to recurrence of 20.5 months. There were no complications encountered.
Conclusions The modified everting suture procedure is a safe, effective, quick and relatively easy procedure for selected patients with mild to moderate epiblepharon, who are undergoing general anaesthesia for surgical correction of their coexisting ophthalmic conditions.
Ji Won Seo, Sunah Kang, Chanjoo Ahn, Bita Esmaeli, Ho-Seok Sa
Background This study investigated surgical outcomes of full-thickness eyelid everting sutures for lower lid epiblepharon and influential factors leading to surgical failure.
Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients with lower lid epiblepharon who underwent surgical correction using the full-thickness eyelid everting suture technique. Lower lid epiblepharon was assessed preoperatively using a morphological classification (class I–IV) according to the horizontal skin fold height and a functional classification (grade 0–3) according to the severity of keratopathy. Four stitches with 5-0 coated polyglactin 910 sutures per eyelid were made, and all procedures were conducted under local anaesthesia in an office-based setting. To assess surgical outcomes, we evaluated undercorrection at 1 month and surgical failure at 6 months after the procedure. Several factors affecting surgical failure were also investigated
Results Sixty-eight eyes of 41 patients were included. There were no eyes showing an undercorrection at 1 month. Keratopathy was significantly improved at 6 months postoperation (P<0.01). All patients showed good cosmesis without undesired creation of a lower lid crease and no significant complications. Sixty-one eyes (89.7%) showed surgical success. Three patients (7.3%) required additional incisional surgery due to recurring irritation. The rate of surgical failure was significantly different between the patient groups classified by preoperative severity of keratopathy (P=0.026) and lower lid horizontal skin fold height (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the lower lid horizontal skin fold height was significantly correlated with surgical failure (OR 18.367, P=0.002).
Conclusion Non-incisional eyelid everting sutures have utility for the correction of lower lid epiblepharon with advantages including its simplicity, being performed in office under local anaesthesia and minimal changes in appearance. We suggest mild to moderate epiblepharon with class I or II horizontal skin fold height and grade 1 or 2 keratopathy as the criteria for considering this suture procedure.
B R Mohammed and R Ford
To evaluate safety and long-term recurrence rate of entropion in patients having everting sutures (ES) for involutional entropion by ophthalmic nurses in a real clinical setting.
Patients and methods
Retrospective notes review of all patients who had an outpatient ES by our trained ophthalmic nurses over 2 year’s time period. Outcome measures were complication and recurrence rates. Those with less than 3 years’ recorded follow-up were contacted by paper questionnaire.
90 lids of 82 patients analysed. Mean age was 78 (range 54–97). In total, 82% had no entropion surgery before, whereas 13% had previous ES and 5% one or more other procedures. Questionnaires were sent to 38, with return rate of 81%. Recurrence rate was 21.1% after 36–60 months follow up from nurse-performed ES, with mean time to recurrence of 15 months (SD 13 months). A total of 32% of patients died during the follow-up period. Mean time between the procedure and death is 20.5 months. When ES were repeated twice (11 patients), recurrence rate was still 20%. No patients had any complications.
ES can be safely performed by ophthalmic nurses, with success rate comparable to the same technique performed by ophthalmologists.
Y Ishida, Y Takahashi and H Kakizaki
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the surgical outcome of posterior layer advancement of the lower eyelid retractors (LER) with transcanthal canthopexy for involutional lower eyelid entropion.
Patients and methods Fifty-one eyelids of 41 patients with involutional entropion and vertical and horizontal laxities that underwent posterior layer advancement of the LER with transcanthal canthopexy were retrospectively reviewed. As a control, we also reviewed previously reported data from 47 entropic eyelids of 37 patients with vertical and horizontal laxities that were successfully corrected using LER advancement and a lateral tarsal strip procedure. Surgical success was defined as the normal eyelid position without contact of any cilia to the globe at the last follow-up examination.
Results All eyelids in the present study group were judged as successfully treated without recurrence after 13.9±9.2 months of follow up (mean±SD). The surgical time in the present study group (22.4±5.5 min) was significantly shorter than that in the control group (mean 31.3±4.9 min; P<0.001; Student’s t-test). None of the patients showed lateral canthal deformity after surgery.
Conclusions Posterior layer advancement of the LER with transcanthal canthopexy provided complete surgical success with shorter surgical time without the risk of lateral canthal deformity. Posterior layer advancement of the LER with transcanthal canthopexy can be an option for correction of involutional lower eyelid entropion in patients with both vertical and horizontal laxities.
Tomomi Iuchi, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Hyera Kang, Shinichi Asamura, Noritaka Isogai, Hirohiko Kakizaki
To examine whether an inward upper eyelid push on the lower eyelid margin during eyelid closure is involved in involutional lower eyelid entropion.
This prospective observational study included 34 sides from 27 patients with involutional lower eyelid entropion. The positional relationship between the upper and the affected lower eyelid margins during eyelid closure were examined before and after posterior layer advancement of the lower eyelid retractors. In addition, we preoperatively examined whether the affected lower eyelid turned in during a voluntary maximum force eyelid closure from the normal position. We then held the upper eyelid away from the lower eyelid during a voluntary maximum force eyelid closure to eliminate the influence of an inward upper eyelid push on the lower eyelid margin. At the time, we investigated whether the affected lower eyelid turned in. All these examinations were performed from the normal lower eyelid position.
Although the upper eyelid margin was on the lower eyelid margin before surgery, this was corrected after surgery in all patients. All affected lower eyelids turned in after voluntary maximum force eyelid closure. However, the lower eyelid margin did not show an inward rotation with holding of the upper eyelid away from the lower eyelid.
These results indicate that an inward upper eyelid push on the lower eyelid is involved in development of an involutional lower eyelid entropion.