Aric Vaidya , Tushar Sarbajna , Hirohiko Kakizaki & Yasuhiro Takahashi
A 35-year-old woman complained of an unpleasant odor for a few days after a change in foundation cream. The patient had previously undergone conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy with a Jones tube fixed with non-absorbable suture. Slit-lamp examination revealed an orange-colored discharge in the tube. A culture test of the discharge showed Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (1+), Aspergillus versicolor (1+), and Mycobacterium chelonae (1+). After medical treatment and suture removal, the discharge completely disappeared. This is the first reported case of a Jones tube infection following conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy with multiple microorganisms, including C. kroppenstedtii.
Edward J. Wladis , Hirah Khan & Valerie H. Chen
To compare the outcomes of patients with and without a history of dacryocystitis that undergo dacryocystorhinostomy without systemic intra- and post-operative antibiotics.
A retrospective review was performed to identify all cases of patients that received surgery under this paradigm and had at least three months of follow up care. Key demographic and outcome data were captured, and a statistical analysis was performed via a dedicated software package (Microsoft Excel, Redmond, WA).
For the study period, 83 patients without and 69 patients with a history of dacryocystitis were identified, and the two groups were not statistically significantly different in age, gender, or postoperative follow up duration (mean = 6.4 months for patients without and 6.3 months for those with dacryocystitis, respectively). No patient developed a postoperative infection or a recurrence of dacryocystitis during the follow up period.
While many surgeons routinely use systemic antibiotics in patients with a history of dacryocystitis who undergo dacryocystorhinostomy, these agents may not be necessary. As a result, patients may be able to avoid the complications and side effects inherent to systemic antibiotics. Large-scale, prospective studies will likely help to further clarify this issue.
Nandini Bothra , Abhimanyu Sharma , Oshin Bansal & Mohammad Javed Ali
To describe the outcomes of punctal dilatation and non-incisional canalicular curettage in patients with infectious canaliculitis.
A retrospective analysis of 53 canaliculi of 47 eyes of 46 consecutive patients diagnosed with canaliculitis was performed from November 2015 to December 2018. All patients were treated with punctal dilatation and a non-incisional canalicular curettage. Parameters studied include demographics, clinical presentation, microbiological analysis, management and treatment outcomes. The outcome measures were clinical resolution of canaliculitis and resolution of epiphora.
The mean age at presentation was 59.34 years with female preponderance (M:F = 19:28). Left eye was more affected (64%, n = 30) as compared to the right (36%, n = 17). Only one patient presented bilaterally. Lower canaliculus was most commonly involved (68%, n = 32). Six eyes showed involvement of both upper and lower canaliculus. Presenting symptoms include discharge (81%), swelling of the eyelids (64%), watering (55%), redness (51%) and pain (39%). Punctal dilatation and non-incisional canalicular curettage were performed using punctum dilator and a small chalazion scoop (1 mm Meyhoefer chalazion curette). Of the 53 involved canaliculi, 14 canaliculi of 14 eyes underwent a repeat curettage for complete resolution and 1 canaliculus underwent the same procedure thrice. The most common micro-organisms isolated were Streptococci species (28% cases). At a mean follow-up of 6.8 months, resolution of canaliculitis was achieved in all patients; however, epiphora persisted in two eyes (4%).
Non-incisional canalicular curettage is a minimally invasive technique with good preservation of the punctal and canalicular anatomy. It also facilitates good anatomical and functional outcomes in infectious canaliculitis
Zuzana Sipkova , Ebube E. Obi , Oyinka Olurin , Peter M. Mota , Oana Vonica & Andrew R. Pearson
Assessment of lacrimal resistance in patients with patent lacrimal systems is important in determining whether dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery is appropriate. Current techniques, including lacrimal syringing and dacryoscintigraphy (DSG), can be unreliable. We compare the results of a manometric tear duct test (mTDT) irrigation technique with DSG in these patients.
All symptomatic patients in a specialist lacrimal clinic had full work-up apart from syringing. Lacrimal resistance was assessed using mTDT which applies a fixed head of fluid pressure via a cannula sealed to punctum. Conventional syringing was also performed in cases with abnormal mTDT. Symptomatic patients with delayed tear clearance, no external cause for watering and patent lacrimal systems had DSG. MTDT and DSG results were compared, including in asymptomatic fellow eyes.
105 tear ducts were examined, 85 symptomatic. Symptomatic eyes had a significantly higher mean mTDT resistance (p = .0003) and more had abnormal mTDT (52%) compared to asymptomatic eyes (10%). Although mean tear duct resistance was higher in those with nasolacrimal duct stenosis (NLDS) than freely patent (FP) on syringing (8.5 vs 10.8 dpm), this was not significant (p = .6). High proportions of both FP and NLDS groups had no flow at all on mTDT (60% and 53%, respectively). DSG showed no significant difference in the symptomatic versus asymptomatic eyes (p = .36), nor between those with a normal or abnormal mTDT (p = .25), nor between FP and NLDS groups (p = .25).
In contrast to DSG, the mTDT provides valuable, objective information on lacrimal resistance that can guide a decision to DCR surgery.
Farzad Pakdel, Mohammad Soleimani, Abolfazl Kasaei, Kambiz Ameli, Niloofar Pirmarzdashti, Ali Sadeghi Tari, Mehrbod Ghasempour & Ali Banafsheafshan
We aimed to show the outcome of very early endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (VE-EDCR) in a routine pool of patients with acute dacryocystitis (AD) and abscess formation compared with the standard late external dacryocystorhinostomy L-ExDCR.
This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study conducted from June 2013 to March 2016. Patients with AD and abscess formation were referred to our oculo-facial clinic in a university-based hospital. All patients received systemic antibiotics and were assigned to either of treatment groups. Patients in group 1 underwent late external transcutaneous DCR (L-ExDCR) and group 2 underwent EDCR within 3 days after first visit, named VE-EDCR. Primary outcome measure was success of surgery.
Forty-one eyes of 41 patients with acute suppurative AD, were included from June 2013 to March 2016. Twenty-two patients underwent VE-EDCR and 19 underwent L-ExDCR. Mean age of patients was 43.41 (SD = 19.84, range 14–98) years. Mean follow-up was 14 (SD = 2.4) months. Anatomic, functional, and overall success in L-ExDCR and VE-EDCR groups were (89.5 and 86.4%, p = 0.99) (89.5% and 86.4%, p = 0.99) (89.5% and 81.8%, p = 0.66) respectively. Mean duration of cellulitis in VE-EDCR and L-ExDCR were 8.00 (SD = 4.63) and 16.11 (SD = 11.58) days, respectively (p = 0.027). No remarkable adverse event was found.
Success of very early endonasal endoscopic DCR is comparable with the traditional late external DCR. Duration of cellulitis is shorter in VE-EDCR. This therapeutic approach can be considered in patients with acute suppurative dacryocystitis.
Tal Koval, Ofira Zloto, Arkadi Yakirevitch, Guy J. Ben Simon, Joseph Ben-Shoshan, Elad Ben Artsi, Alon Weissman & Ayelet Priel
To compare the outcomes of combined endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endoDCR) with nasal septoplasty for deviation of the nasal septum to endoDCR alone in cases of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO).
A retrospective cohort study that included 107 consecutive patients with NLDO, who underwent endoDCR with or without concomitant nasal septoplasty in our institution between October 2009 and October 2017.
A total of 117 operations were performed (107 patients, 80.4% females; mean age ± SD 51.1 ± 19.5 years). Twenty-five (21.4%) endoscopic surgeries were combined with septoplasty (the endoDCR + septoplasty group), and 92 (78.6%) comprised endoDCR alone (the endoDCR group). There was no difference in anatomical success and functional success rates between the two groups (P = 0.76 and P = 0.18, respectively). There were no complications attributed to the septoplasty component of the surgical procedure.
Considerable numbers of patients undergoing endoDCR also require a septoplasty. Combining an additional procedure (septoplasty), that was not performed for its original indication but rather for facilitating the main surgical intervention (endoDCR), yields surgical success and associated complications equivalent to those of endoDCR alone.
Ofira Zloto, Tal Koval, Arkadi Yakirevich, Guy J Ben Simon, Alon Weissman, Elad Ben Artsi, Joseph Ben Shoshan & Ayelet Priel
The nasal mucosa is sacrificed in conventional endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies (EDCRs). Some surgeons, however, modify the technique by elevating a mucosal flap prior to creating the osteotomy with the aim of preserving the mucosa. To our knowledge, no clear-cut benefit of a mucosal flap has been established. The aim of this study is to examine the differences in surgical techniques and success rates of EDCRs with and without mucosal flap preservation.
We carried out a medical record review of all patients who underwent primary EDCR at the Goldschleger Eye Institute from October 2009 to October 2017. The following data were retrieved from the medical database and analyzed: patient demographics (age at diagnosis and gender), medical history, examination findings, surgical details, postoperative success, complications, and follow-up.
A total of 107 patients who underwent 117 EDCRs participated in the study. Fifty-one patients comprised the group without a mucosal flap and 56 patients comprised the group with mucosal flap preservation. The medical history, presenting complaints, and preoperative examination findings were similar for both groups. The surgical success rate was not significantly different between the groups (82.1% without flap vs. 86.8% with flap, P = 0.478, Chi-square).
The findings of this comparison of EDCRs with and without mucosal flap preservation in a large patient population revealed no differences in surgical success or complications rates between the two procedures and, therefore, no benefit for adding flap preservation to conventional EDCRs.
Christopher M. Stewart & Geoffrey E. Rose
To review the outcome for primary or revisional external dacryocystorhinostomy in patients with granulomatous polyangiitis.
Patients and methods
Retrospective case-note review to include age at presentation, duration of prior GPA, immunosuppression at time of surgery, nature of first lacrimal surgery, and symptomatic control.
Forty-eight patients (25 female; 52%) presented at an average age of 50.5 years and 7 (15%) had prior lacrimal surgery on one (5/7; 71%) or both sides. The duration of systemic GPA varied, with 40% having disease for up to 3 years prior to lacrimal referral, and 41/48 (85%) being on systemic immunosuppression. Forty-eight patients had 71 affected drainage pathways—having symptoms for an average of 22 months (range <1 month to 7 years). Surgery was undertaken on 70/71 systems—62/70 primary DCRs (20 unilateral; 8 simultaneous bilateral; 13 sequential bilateral). Of nine systems with persistent symptoms after prior surgery, eight underwent revisional surgery (six unilateral; one sequential bilateral). With a follow-up of 2.5 years (range 3 months to 14 years), volume symptoms were cured in all 70 cases. Flow symptoms were controlled in 58/62 (94%) systems after primary DCR, and all eight after revisional surgery. Of four sides with persistent epiphora, one was cured with revisional DCR and three with placement of Jones’ canalicular bypass tubes.
Mucoid discharge, dacryocystitis and recurrent conjunctivitis were cured in all patients with GPA after either primary and revisional surgery. Continued epiphora was controlled in most patients with additional closed procedures.
Elizabeth M. McElnea MD FRCOphth Aoife Smyth MBBCh BAO Alice E. Dutton MBBS Justin D. Friebel FRANZCO Charles S. Su FRANZCO
Tomomichi Nakayama, Akihide Watanabe, Saul Rajak, Yukito Yamanaka, Chie Sotozono
Purpose To investigate spontaneous resolution of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) beyond 12 months of age in Japanese infants.
Methods Retrospective, observational case series. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients diagnosed with CNLDO beyond 12 months of age at Kyoto Prefectural University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan. This study involved 155 cases of CNLDO in 133 Japanese infants diagnosed with CNLDO. All patients chose intervention with either dacryoendoscopic guided probing and stenting or conservative management. The proportion and age of patients who had spontaneous CLNDO resolution were analysed.
Results The patients were divided into two groups: (1) 62 patients with 70 obstructed nasolacrimal ducts (45%) in whom spontaneous resolution occurred and (2) 71 patients with 85 obstructed nasolacrimal ducts (55%) who underwent dacryoendoscopic guided probing and stenting. The mean age of spontaneous resolution was 17.8±5.3 months (range: 12.0–35.4 months). Dacryoendoscopic guided probing and stenting were successful in 83/85 (97.6%) of cases.
Conclusions Spontaneous resolution of CNLDO can occur in 45% of infants over the age of 12 months. Dacryoendoscopic guided stenting also has high success rates in this patient group, and both treatment options can be proposed to caregivers.