Effy Ojuok, Aditya Uppuluri, Paul D. Langer, Marco A. Zarbin, Loka Thangamathesvaran & Neelakshi BhagatRead More
Trauma is the leading cause of enucleations in the USA. Current information regarding open globe injuries (OGI) is based mainly on data from individual tertiary care centers across the country which might skew the findings towards the population served by these level-one trauma centers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, characteristics, and risk factors of traumatic enucleations in a large data sample.
Descriptive cross-sectional observational study using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database from 2002 to 2013. Inpatients with traumatic enucleations were identified using ICD-9 codes. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to identify differences between the enucleated and non-enucleated cohorts and to evaluate the predictive factors of enucleation in OGIs.
Enucleations were performed in 3020 (6.2%) of 48,563 OGIs identified. The average age in the enucleated cohort for males vs. females was 44.7 vs. 62.2 years. In the USA, the highest number of traumatic enucleations occurred in the 21–40 group (41.8%) and the fewest in the 80+ age group (11.8%). The risk of enucleation decreased across the age groups significantly. Compared with the 21–40 age group, the risk of undergoing enucleation was 15% lower in patients 41 to 60 years of age, 35% in patients 61 to 80, and 40% lower in patients over 80. In total, 5.1% OGIs in women and 6.7% of OGIs in men were enucleated. The risk of enucleation was 29% higher in men than in women. The highest absolute number of enucleations was seen in Whites. Compared with Whites, Blacks had a 63% higher risk of enucleation following an OGI. OGIs with rupture-type injury, endophthalmitis, or phthisis were significantly higher odds to be enucleated.
The risk of enucleation following traumatic OGI significantly increased for patients who were in the 21–40 age group, of Black race, or of male gender; the risk also increased if the injury was a rupture-type or associated with endophthalmitis or phthisis. The risk of depression was 75% higher in enucleated patients versus non-enucleated patients.