Tal Koval, Ofira Zloto, Arkadi Yakirevitch, Guy J. Ben Simon, Joseph Ben-Shoshan, Elad Ben Artsi, Alon Weissman & Ayelet Priel
To compare the outcomes of combined endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endoDCR) with nasal septoplasty for deviation of the nasal septum to endoDCR alone in cases of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO).
A retrospective cohort study that included 107 consecutive patients with NLDO, who underwent endoDCR with or without concomitant nasal septoplasty in our institution between October 2009 and October 2017.
A total of 117 operations were performed (107 patients, 80.4% females; mean age ± SD 51.1 ± 19.5 years). Twenty-five (21.4%) endoscopic surgeries were combined with septoplasty (the endoDCR + septoplasty group), and 92 (78.6%) comprised endoDCR alone (the endoDCR group). There was no difference in anatomical success and functional success rates between the two groups (P = 0.76 and P = 0.18, respectively). There were no complications attributed to the septoplasty component of the surgical procedure.
Considerable numbers of patients undergoing endoDCR also require a septoplasty. Combining an additional procedure (septoplasty), that was not performed for its original indication but rather for facilitating the main surgical intervention (endoDCR), yields surgical success and associated complications equivalent to those of endoDCR alone.
Ofira Zloto, Tal Koval, Arkadi Yakirevich, Guy J Ben Simon, Alon Weissman, Elad Ben Artsi, Joseph Ben Shoshan & Ayelet Priel
The nasal mucosa is sacrificed in conventional endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies (EDCRs). Some surgeons, however, modify the technique by elevating a mucosal flap prior to creating the osteotomy with the aim of preserving the mucosa. To our knowledge, no clear-cut benefit of a mucosal flap has been established. The aim of this study is to examine the differences in surgical techniques and success rates of EDCRs with and without mucosal flap preservation.
We carried out a medical record review of all patients who underwent primary EDCR at the Goldschleger Eye Institute from October 2009 to October 2017. The following data were retrieved from the medical database and analyzed: patient demographics (age at diagnosis and gender), medical history, examination findings, surgical details, postoperative success, complications, and follow-up.
A total of 107 patients who underwent 117 EDCRs participated in the study. Fifty-one patients comprised the group without a mucosal flap and 56 patients comprised the group with mucosal flap preservation. The medical history, presenting complaints, and preoperative examination findings were similar for both groups. The surgical success rate was not significantly different between the groups (82.1% without flap vs. 86.8% with flap, P = 0.478, Chi-square).
The findings of this comparison of EDCRs with and without mucosal flap preservation in a large patient population revealed no differences in surgical success or complications rates between the two procedures and, therefore, no benefit for adding flap preservation to conventional EDCRs.
Pham, Chau; Setabutr, Pete
As intraoperative use of electronic equipment becomes more common, familiarity with the potential for electrocardiographic artifact generated by these instruments is increasingly important. The authors’ patient underwent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy under general anesthesia for treatment of acute on chronic dacryocystitis secondary to acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. She had previously had pacemaker placement for treatment of sick sinus syndrome and low ejection fraction heart failure, and use of a microdebrider intraoperatively resulted in loss of pacer spikes and interference signal on electrocardiographic leading to placement of a magnet. Post-operatively, examination of the microdebrider cord revealed a tear that likely lead to the artifactual electrocardiographic signal influencing the decision for magnet placement. Although there were no long-term ill effects, placement of the magnet was an unnecessary intervention that may have been avoided by prompt recognition of artifactual changes that may be induced by intraoperative use of electronic instrumentation.
Nandini Bothra, Milind N. Naik & Mohammad Javed Ali
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in pediatric patients.
Methods: A single-center, single surgeon, retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series was performed on all pediatric patients who underwent PEnDCR between July 2014 and July 2017. Patients with associated congenital anomalies like single punctum agenesis or lacrimal fistula were excluded. Surgery was performed as per standard protocols published earlier. Data collected include demographics, clinical presentations, past interventions, indications for the surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative ostium characteristics, and anatomical and functional success.
Results: Ninety-one eyes of 83 children underwent PEnDCR during the study period. Mean age was 8.32 years and epiphora was the most common presentation (81%, 74/91). The most common indication for PEnDCR was persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction refractory to earlier interventions of probing or intubation. Postoperative ostium assessment at 4 weeks showed a well-healed ostium with a dynamic internal common opening in 86.8% of the eyes. Edge granulomas of the ostium were the most common abnormal finding in the postoperative period (9.8%, 9/91) and all except one could be managed conservatively. At 6 months follow-up, five eyes showed anatomical failure and additional two eyes showeXd functional failure. Two of anatomical failure group and one of functional failure underwent a second intervention. The final anatomical and functional success were noted in 96.7% (88/91) and 95.6% (87/91), respectively.
Conclusions: This study shows that PEnDCR is a safe surgery for pediatric populations with a high success rate of beyond 95%.
Sarina K. Mueller, Suzanne K. Freitag, Daniel R. Lefebvre, Nahyoung G. Lee & Benjamin S. Bleier
Background: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies (eDCRs) show patency rates between 81% and 94%. However, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) failure and the need for revision remain a significant challenge. One of the principal challenges in revision eDCR is the need to surgically identify the correct osteotomy site and maintain long-term patency in the setting of previously instrumented and potentially scarred tissue. At the same time, the surgeon must assume that the blood supply to the commonly described anterior and posteriorly pedicled flaps has been compromised.
Objective: The objective of the study is to describe a novel flap technique for revision eDCR.
Methods: The superior based mucosal flap is a novel technique that provides a vascularized mucosa preserving technique in revision eDCR despite previous instrumentation of the lacrimal system. This technique provides wide exposure of the revision osteotomy site while simultaneously allowing a viable mucosal flap to be replaced at the conclusion of the procedure, thereby minimizing bone exposure and cicatricial restenosis.
Results: The authors have utilized this technique in 13 procedures with 100% positive identification of the lacrimal sac, a 0% complication rate, and a 100% success rate after a mean follow-up of 26.93 ± 10.33 months (range 6–35 months).
Conclusion: The eDCR using the superior pedicled mucosal flap provides excellent exposure of the maxillary bone and the lacrimal sac. This method preserves vascularity of the flap using a superiorly based pedicle which is typically inviolate during both open and endoscopic primary DCR. The mucosal flap can then be replaced, thereby minimizing bone exposure and optimizing patency.
Tracy Kwok, Mohammad Javed Ali & Hunter Yuen
Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the preferred practice patterns in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EnDCR) among oculoplastic surgeons practicing in the Asia–Pacific region.
Methods: A detailed survey with 40 questions was electronically disseminated among oculoplastic surgeons practicing in Asia–Pacific region. The mailing list included targeted members of the Asia Pacific Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and nonmembers from the contact directories of the two senior authors. Data collected include demographics, training, surgical techniques, postoperative care, and outcomes.
Results: The majority of surgeons performed a preoperative nasal endoscopy (76.2%, total respondents (n) = 122), and most preferred a general anesthesia for endoscopic DCRs (51.9%, n = 104). The majority of surgeons believed in preserving nasal mucosal and the lacrimal sac flaps and adjunctive endoscopic procedures were performed when required (58.4%, n = 101). Routine lacrimal sac wall biopsy for histopathology was not a preferred practice. The practice of routine silicone intubation was more common than the use of topical adjunctive. The majority of surgeons (52.6%, n = 97) took 31–60 minutes to complete a unilateral endoscopic DCR. Postoperative routine nasal douching and ostium cleaning were not widespread practices. The self-reported outcomes were good.
Conclusion: A significantly high percentage of oculoplastic surgeons from Asia–Pacific perform endoscopic DCR. Although the range of practice patterns is wide, there is increasing uniformity in surgical techniques with regard to endoscopic DCR as compared to the previous surveys.
Jinhwan Park, Joonsik Lee & Sehyun Baek
To correlate the pathologic features and heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) expression in the nasal mucosa and lacrimal sac with the surgical outcomes of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR).
Specimens of the nasal mucosa and lacrimal sac over the rhinostomy site were collected during the operation. Haematoxylin–eosin and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the pathologic features (inflammation, fibrosis, squamous metaplasia) and the expression of HSP47 in the epithelium and sub-epithelial glands of the nasal mucosa and lacrimal sac. The success or failure of EDCR was determined 6 months after surgery.
A total of 30 patients (30 eyes) were included in this study. Inflammation and squamous metaplasia of the nasal mucosa were not associated with the surgical outcome of EDCR (p = 0.485 and 0.069, respectively), but there was an association with fibrosis of the nasal mucosa (p = 0.003). In addition, HSP47 in the nasal mucosa was associated with the surgical outcomes (p = 0.005). Inflammation of the lacrimal sac was not associated with the surgical outcome of EDCR (p = 0.509), but fibrosis and squamous metaplasia of the lacrimal sac were (p = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). Additionally, HSP47 in the lacrimal sac was associated with surgical outcomes (p < 0.001).
Fibrosis and squamous metaplasia of the nasal mucosa and lacrimal sac lowered the success rate of EDCR. HSP47 also lowered the surgical success rate. Fibrosis was correlated with the expression of HSP47.
Blandford, Alexander D.; Cherfan, Daniel G.; Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Hwang, Catherine J.; Perry, Julian D.; Cheng, Olivia T.
Purpose: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying nasolacrimal air regurgitation (AR) in the setting of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.
Methods: Twelve nasolacrimal systems of 6 fresh female human cadavers were evaluated individually for AR using continuous positive airway pressure therapy before any nasolacrimal procedure. Cadavers were then randomly assigned to undergo nasolacrimal duct probing or endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and then each hemisystem was again evaluated for AR. The pressure where AR was first observed (discovery pressure) or maximum possible pressure in systems without AR was recorded. In systems that demonstrated AR, the pressure was then gradually decreased to the lowest pressure where regurgitation persisted. This pressure was recorded as the secondary threshold pressure.
Results: None of the 12 unoperated nasolacrimal systems or the 6 systems that underwent nasolacrimal duct probing demonstrated AR through the maximum continuous positive airway pressure therapy (30 cm H2O). After endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, all 6 nasolacrimal systems demonstrated AR. The mean discovery pressure was 16.0 cm H2O (range, 14.0–18.0 cm H2O) and mean secondary threshold pressure was 7.25 cm H2O (range, 6.5–8.0 cm H2O).
Conclusions: Air regurgitation during continuous positive airway pressure therapy in the setting of prior endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy can be replicated in a cadaver model. The secondary threshold pressures required for AR in this model were similar to AR pressures reported clinically. Prior to dacryocystorhinostomy, patients using continuous positive airway pressure therapy should be counseled on AR, and physicians should consider this phenomenon when evaluating ophthalmic complaints in postoperative patients on positive airway pressure therapy.
Few studies have focused on the intranasal localization of the lacrimal sac during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: landmarks in order to find the medial wall of the lacrimal sac have been described, but there is a lack of description of methods for the verification of the complete marsupialization of the lacrimal sac during surgery. In this report, we propose an easy and effective method for certain intraoperative identification of lacrimal sac.
A method in order to verify the effective marsupialization of the lacrimal sac is applied and described: to ensure that the opening of the sac in the nasal cavity is complete, the surgeon should identify the Rosenmuller valve, which is the end of the common canaliculus in the lacrimal sac. Continuous irrigation with saline solution through the inferior canaliculus can be useful to obtain a clean surgical area and to permit easy intraoperative identification of the valve.
Between 2007 and 2015, 193 endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies were performed in our institutions. Postoperative surgical success at last follow-up (minimum 12 months) was 93.8% (181 out of 193 of cases). No major complications were observed.
Correct and complete exposure of the lacrimal sac during surgery is crucial for a good outcome: when the opening of the common canaliculus is identified, the surgeon is assured that the sac has been correctly and completely marsupialized inside the nasal cavity.
Adam R. Sweeney, Greg E. Davis, Shu-Hong Chang & Arash Jian-Amadi
This article determines the efficacy of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endoDCR) in patients who have undergone adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (XRT) following head and neck cancer resection. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent endoDCR between 2006 and 2014 at a tertiary referral center. Cases were reviewed and selected for the following inclusion criteria: history of adjuvant sinonasal XRT following head and neck cancer resection, preoperative probing and irrigation demonstrating nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO), postoperative probing and irrigation following silicone tube extubation. Exclusion criteria included active dacryocystitis, postoperative follow-up of less than 4 months, presence of epiphora prior to XRT, lack of probing/irrigation at preoperative or postoperative visit, and lid malposition including ectropion, facial palsy, and/or poor tear pump. Six patients (7 eyes) met the selection criteria. EndoDCR was performed at a mean time of 30 months following last radiation treatment (range, 3–71 months). Mitomycin C was used in 4/7 cases. Silicone tube removal occurred between 3–8 months postoperatively. Five out of 6 patients had postoperative sinonasal debridement and nasal saline/corticosteroid irrigation. Five out of 6 patients (83%) had both resolution of epiphora and anatomic patency confirmed by probing and irrigation. Our experience suggests that endoDCR procedures can be effective in patients with NLDO following prior sinonasal XRT for head and neck neoplasms. Postoperative management with sinonasal debridement and combined saline/corticosteroid nasal irrigation may help to improve surgical success in patients with increased post-radiotherapy mucosal inflammation.