William Young, Stacy M Scofield-Kaplan, R Evan Levy, Zachary Keenum, Ronald Mancini
To evaluate the change in lateral canthal angle (LCA), inferior ocular surface exposed (IOSE), lower eyelid curvature, and margin-to-reflex distance 2 in those undergoing lower eyelid ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip technique.
This is an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis of patients undergoing lower eyelid ectropion repair. This study included all patients from 2012 to 2018 operated on by a single surgeon at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. For each patient, LCA, IOSE, and eyelid curvature were measured on preoperative and postoperative photographs using NIH Image J photographic analysis. These measurements were compared using paired 1-tail t-tests for LCA and IOSE and paired 2-tail t-tests for eyelid curvature. This study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant with protection of individually identifiable information.
Fifty-one patients with lower eyelid ectropion underwent lower eyelid ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip technique. Forty-three of the patients underwent a bilateral lower eyelid ectropion repair. There was no statistically significant difference in the LCA. There was a reduction in IOSE among both cohorts. The fourth degree polynomial trendlines generated to assess eyelid curvature demonstrated statistical significance, suggesting a flattening of eyelid curvature. margin-to-reflex distance 2 also had a statistically significant decrease postoperatively.
Lower eyelid ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip approach causes a reduction in IOSE, a more gradual lower eyelid curvature, and a decrease in margin-to-reflex distance 2 without causing a statistically significant change in LCA.
Denisova, Ksenia; Barmettler, Anne
Purpose of review
Refractive surgery is one of the most popular elective procedures performed in the world. Given that dry eye is a common complaint following keratorefractive surgery, evaluation, and treatment of periocular conditions that further predispose the patient to dry eye symptoms is an important part of the presurgical assessment. Periocular conditions and surgeries can also affect the ocular surface and keratometry, and should be addressed. For example, ptosis, orbital fat herniation, ectropion, and eyelid masses have been shown to induce corneal topography changes and astigmatism. The oculoplastic considerations for refractive surgery include both the contribution of eyelid position on dry eye, ocular surface damage, refractive error, and outcomes, as well as the timing of oculoplastic surgery in relation to the refractive surgery. In this review, the recently published literature on eyelid and orbital surgery in relation to keratorefractive surgery is reviewed to elucidate the relationship of periocular factors with refractive surgery outcomes and complications. To improve keratorefractive surgery outcomes, a literature review is presented, discussing evaluation, management, and timing of management of oculoplastics conditions.
Dry eye syndrome is a well known complication of keratorefractive procedures. This is exacerbated with concurrent eyelid or orbital disorders, such as ectropion, lagophthalmos, and thyroid eye disease. In addition to impacting dry eye and ocular surface damage, eyelid surgeries can also affect corneal topography and refraction. Studies have found that patients with ptosis have topographic corneal aberrations from the eyelid exerting pressure on the cornea, while ptosis repair and blepharoplasty patients may undergo an astigmatic change postoperatively. Finally, the corneal flap created in laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis may be at risk for displacement or damage postoperatively with this risk changing, depending on method of flap creation, and time elapsed since keratorefractive surgery.
Eyelid and orbital conditions that predispose to dry eye syndrome and refractive changes should be evaluated and optimized prior to keratorefractive surgery. Patients electing to have oculoplastic surgery, like ptosis repair, should be fully healed prior to any refractive surgery to allow both refractive changes and eyelid positions to stabilize prior to the refractive surgery.
Catherine Y Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel J Oh, MD, Allen M Putterman, MD
Involutional ectropion, caused by horizontal and vertical eyelid laxity and variable stretching or disinsertion of the capsulopalpebral fascia, can be surgically corrected by a number of methods.1 The lazy-T technique, described by Byron Smith in 1976,2 is a good option for ectropion repair predominantly in the medial portion of the lower lid. Horizontal and vertical eyelid shortening is achieved by full thickness excision of a portion of the lower lid as well as the posterior lamella in a sideways “T” configuration.2
Chronic exposure of the medial palpebral conjunctiva can lead to stenosis of the punctum. Also, a vertical full-thickness incision of the lower lid placed too close to the punctum can lead…
Segal, Kira L.; Elner, Susan G.; Elner, Victor M.
Purpose: To evaluate the results of permanent medial tarsorrhaphy and to describe the surgical technique.
Methods: Medial tarsorrhaphy was performed on 30 eyelids with symptomatic exposure keratopathy secondary to eyelid malposition. Observational, retrospective review of preoperative and postoperative examination findings was performed.
Results: Average age of the cohort was 66 years (31–91). Medial tarsorrhaphy was performed to correct eyelid retraction (100%), exposure keratopathy (80%), lagophthalmos (57%), and ectropion (17%) in patients with cranial nerve VII palsy (47%), Graves eye disease (13%), eczema (7%), floppy eyelid syndrome (7%), after Mohs reconstruction (7%), orbital myositis (3%), and neurofibromatosis (3%). Seventy-three percent (73%) of patients had an average of 3 surgeries (N = 22, standard deviation = 1.12, range = 2–7) before undergoing medial tarsorrhaphy. Medial tarsorrhaphy was performed in combination with another procedure in 53% of cases. Palpebral fissure decreased postoperatively an average of 1.1 mm (N = 20; p = 0.005), inferior scleral show decreased 0.72 mm (N = 22; p = 0.03), lagophthalmos decreased 0.4 mm (N = 15; p = 0.27), and superficial punctate keratopathy improved by 61% (N = 27; p = 0.009). Ectropion completely resolved in 4 of 10 patients (40%). Seven patients (23%) required additional surgery following tarsorrhaphy an average of 8 months later (range = 2–16). In 1 patient (3%), a tarsorrhaphy opened prematurely, and 1 patient (3%) requested partial opening of the tarsorrhaphy. Average duration of follow up was 13 months (N = 30, standard deviation = 14.97, range = 0.2–45.7).
Conclusions: Medial tarsorrhaphy is a safe and effective primary or salvage technique to address complex causes of eyelid retraction, lagophthalmos, ectropion, and exposure keratopathy.
Honeylen Maryl Tiu Teo, MD; Francesca de Sá Freire, MD; Hakan Demirci, MD
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that competitively inhibit TNF, a proinflammatory cytokine, from binding to TNF receptors. Infliximab and adalimumab are 2 TNF-α inhibitors that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for autoimmune disorders including pediatric Crohn disease.1 These are 2 of 5 best-selling drugs worldwide in 2016, with adalimumab projected to remain the top-selling drug until 2022.2 With their widespread and increasing use, knowledge of possible ophthalmologic adverse events becomes imperative.
Rashed N. Alhabshan & Tamer N. Mansour
It is well established and documented that fluoroquinolone use is associated with the development of tendinopathy. However, little is known about the possible effects of this class of antibiotics on the orbit. We present a case of lateral canthal tendon rupture that presented with an acute right lower eyelid ectropion in a young, renal compromised patient in the setting of recent fluoroquinolone use for pneumonia. Eye care clinicians need to be aware of the possible effects of fluoroquinolones on the eyelids.
Kaveh Vahdani, Rebecca Ford, Helen Garrott & Vladimir Theodor Thaller
To compare the functional and anatomical outcomes of lateral tarsal strip (LTS) with Bick’s procedure in treatment of eyelid malposition.
A retrospective, consecutive case series of patients who underwent LTS and Bick’s procedure for all types of involutional lower eyelid malposition, at two centers between January 2012 and 2015. Statistical analyses of differences between groups were performed using the Fisher’s exact test to compare non-continuous variables and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables.
A total of 641 procedures (557 LTS and 84 Bick’s) were performed on 504 patients (137 bilateral) by 7 consultants and their trainees. The study cohort included 286 males and 218 females. The mean age was 76.2 years (median 78). The mean follow-up was 13.07 months (median 7, range 0.5–58 months). The indications for surgery included ectropion (43.2%), entropion (39.9%), eyelid laxity (12.3%), floppy eyelid syndrome (2.7%), and others (1.9%). At last follow-up, the LTS group achieved 89.1% anatomical success (total + partial correction) compared to 100% in Bick’s group (P < 0.001). Functional improvement was 82% and 95% in LTS and Bick’s groups, respectively (P = 0.002). Consultants and trainee doctors achieved comparable outcomes within each group. Complications were relatively minor with no major long-term sequelae, nor any statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of frequency of adverse events (16.9% vs 14.2%, P = 0.929). The reoperation rate was 9% in the LTS group during the study period, compared to none in the Bick’s group (P = 0.001).
This study compares the outcomes of the largest reported cohort of eyelid malposition surgery analyzing the two different techniques for lid margin shortening. Bick’s procedure achieved statistically significant better anatomical and functional outcomes compared to LTS although the samples were unequal and not randomized.
Shivanand C Bubanale, Linda Maria Genoveva De Piedade Sequeira, Bhagyajyothi B Kurbet
Congenital lamellar ichthyosis is an autosomal recessive, heterogeneous disorder presenting at birth with generalized skin involvement. The most common ophthalmic manifestation noted is bilateral ectropion of the lower eyelids. A 1-month-old female neonate, the second born of a nonconsanguineous marriage, presented with 4 days’ history of redness, discharge, and swelling in the right eye. There was severe right upper eyelid ectropion, conjunctival injection, chemosis, a subconjunctival mass on the temporal bulbar conjunctiva spontaneously draining pus and corneal haze. The anterior chamber, iris, lens and fundus appeared normal. Congenital lamellar ichthyosis was suspected because of scaling and excessive dryness of the entire body. The occurrence of a spontaneous subconjunctival abscess is not known in lamellar ichthyosis. We thus report the management of a rare case of unilateral upper eyelid ectropion, subconjunctival abscess with orbital cellulitis in congenital lamellar ichthyosis.
Jones, Scott T.; Aakalu, Vinay K.; Lin, Amy Y.; Perez, Catherine; Epstein, Gil; Putterman, Allen M.; Setabutr, Pete
Purpose: To examine the changes in microscopic anatomy of the lower eyelid tarsal ectropion repair with the Putterman ptosis clamp and better understand the anatomical changes associated with the eyelid malposition correction.
Methods: Ten orbits from 5 fresh frozen cadaver heads, ranging in age from 53 to 77 years, were used for the dissection. For each head, a Putterman clamp tarsal ectropion repair was performed on one side, while the contralateral unoperated orbit served as a control. After performing the procedure, both orbits were exenterated and they, along with the resected specimens, were studied microscopically using Verhoeff-Masson trichrome and hematoxylin-eosin stains.
Results: Conjunctiva, capsulopalpebral fascia, and smooth muscle were present on all tissue specimens incarcerated within the ptosis clamp. Tarsus was present in one specimen. There was a shortening of the posterior lamella of the eyelid with advancement of the capsulopalpebral fascia on all operated specimens when compared with controls.
Conclusion: The Putterman clamp ectropion repair works by shortening the posterior lamella of the eyelid and advancing the lower eyelid retractors superiorly. This advancement tightens the lower eyelid retractors and thus stabilizes the eyelid in a more vertical position. In addition to a lateral tendon tuck as described in the original article to tighten horizontal eyelid laxity, this procedure addresses both vertical and horizontal laxity of tarsal ectropion.
Chisholm, Smith Ann M.; Couch, Steven M.; Custer, Philip L.
Purpose: Allergic dermatitis is a common but often misdiagnosed condition that can present with a variety of findings including inflammation, eyelid malposition, and tearing. This study was performed to identify likely etiologies, along with presenting findings and treatment strategies for allergic dermatitis.
Methods: A retrospective review of clinical records was performed of patients diagnosed with allergic dermatitis in academic oculoplastics practices from 2002 to 2014. Initial consultation included review of medications and cosmeceuticals. Suspected allergens were discontinued and an ophthalmic steroid was applied. Persistent allergic dermatitis led to further medication changes or formal allergy testing in an effort to identify the causative agent.
Results: Sixty-one patients were identified; average age was 66 years old (range: 33–94), and 45 of the patients were women (74%). Average follow up was 7 months (range: 1–60 months). Reasons for referral included epiphora (31.2%), ectropion (24.6%), blepharitis/dermatitis (18.0%), and “droopy” eyelid (14.8%). Presenting symptoms included irritation (77.1%) and tearing (50.8%). Average duration of symptoms was 16.5 months (range: 2 days–8 years). The 3 most common etiologies were eye drops (54.2%), creams/lotions (24.6%), and cosmetics (13.1%). Rubbing/manipulation was also thought to be a significant factor in 30% of the patients. Overall, the initial treatment regimen led to at least partial resolution in 88% of patients and 66% experienced complete resolution. Patients resistant to therapy were referred for patch testing. At follow up, 98% of patients had improvement in their symptoms and 90% of patients had complete resolution of their symptoms.
Conclusions: Allergic eyelid dermatitis is commonly related to eye drops and topical cosmetics or skin care products. Identification and elimination of causative agents is the mainstay of management. Topical corticosteroids often facilitate resolution of the associated inflammation. Therapy resistant patients may benefit from formal allergy testing.