Francesco M. Quaranta-Leoni, Maria Grazia Fiorino, Fabio Serricchio, Flavia Quaranta-Leoni
To identify a rationale for correct surgical treatment of proximal lacrimal obstructions.
Retrospective review of 775 consecutive patients (974 eyes) with proximal lacrimal obstructions, operated on with customized surgery by a senior surgeon (FMQL) from January 2003 to December 2018.
In case of punctal stenosis, punctoplasty was as effective as punctal dilatation with monocanalicular or bicanalicular stent (p > 0.05). In proximal canalicular obstructions, failure rate of dacrocystorhinostomy with retrograde intubation (R-DCR) was significantly higher in case of false inferior passage creation than in case of no false passage creation (p = 0.02). In mid-canalicular obstructions failure rate of R-DCR was 41.3%, and bypass surgery with Jones tube at second stage was likely. Trephination and monocanalicular intubation, performed in selected cases, had a failure rate respectively of 16.6% and 21.7% in mid and distal canalicular obstructions. Canaliculodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR) was successful in 77% of cases of proximal common canalicular obstruction. Bypass surgery is the treatment of choice in case of no residual patency, and rates of tube extrusion were significantly reduced with the use of StopLoss Jones tubes (SLJT) (1.7%) with respect to standard tubes (12%), (p = 0.04, Fisher’s exact test).
Patient history and accurate diagnosis of the site of obstruction are essential for a correct surgical choice. Less invasive techniques as trephination and intubation may be effective, but should be reserved to patients with no associated lower lacrimal obstruction. Further studies require specific randomized clinical trials, and a standardized protocol adopted by different clinical centres.
Justin N Karlin, Hamzah Mustak, Adit Gupta, Regina Ramos, Daniel B Rootman
Purpose: Lacrimal outflow imaging has been limited in clinical practice due to a combination of modality limitations and efficacy of clinical testing. Cone beam computed tomography dacryocystography (CBCT DCG) has certain advantages over other modalities that may enhance clinical utility. This study was intended to understand the relationships between symptoms, syringing and CBCT DCG in a population of patients presenting with tearing.
Methods: Cross-sectional cohort study of adult patients undergoing both CBCT DCG and clinical probing and irrigation. Concordance analysis between symptoms, clinical examination, and CBCT DCG was performed at baseline and postoperatively in patients who were treated with dacryocystorhinostomy.
Results: CBCT DCG findings correlate fairly well with probing/irrigation (Cohen kappa = 0.376). Excluding cases of canalicular obstruction identified by either method, the correlation between CBCT DCG and probing/irrigation was moderately improved (Cohen kappa = 0.488). There was no statistically significant difference in correlation with patient symptoms between CBCT DCG and probing/irrigation (p = 0.877). Fifteen patients (17 lacrimal systems) patients underwent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery. Ten demonstrated absence of symptoms 90 days postoperatively, 3 endorsed continued tearing and 2 were lost to follow up. All 3 who demonstrated continued tearing, demonstrated canalicular obstruction on CBCT DCG which was not initially detected on probing/irrigation.
Conclusions: CBCT DCG correlates moderately well with probing and irrigation, as well as patient symptoms. This technology may assist in identification of functional/anatomic canalicular obstruction.
Elin Bohman Maria Kugelberg Eva Dafgård Kopp
To investigate long‐term outcome and report reoperation rate of non‐infected, complete acquired lacrimal drainage obstruction (ALDO ) treated with canaliculodacryocystoplasty (CDCP ) depending on site of stenosis.
Consecutive adult patients with non‐infected, complete ALDO treated with CDCP were followed for 76 months. Location of stenosis at preoperative visit and intraoperative probing was recorded, and during follow‐up, recurrence of stenosis prompting additional surgery and complications were noted. Survival analysis was applied to compare reoperation rate depending on site of stenosis. A follow‐up questionnaire was sent to patients not requiring reoperation asking to grade current epiphora problems.
Among 85 included cases (71 patients), 57 were classified as canalicular stenosis and 28 as nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO ) preoperatively. At the end of follow‐up, 39% (33/85) of cases had required additional surgery due to persistent/recurrent symptoms. No statistical difference was found between these groups.
During CDCP , 25 of the 57 preoperatively classified canalicular stenosis were found to have an additional obstruction below the sac. The group with only canalicular stenosis had a statistically significant higher survival compared with cases with NLDO or multiple obstructions (p = 0.03). Of patients responding to the follow‐up questionnaire, 11/37 cases experienced epiphora often or constant.
Treating complete NLDO with CDCP results in a high reoperation rate and seems an insufficient alternative. Canaliculodacryocystoplasty (CDCP ) may be discussed if preoperative examination indicates canalicular stenosis and dacryocystorhinostomy is not desirable. However, the patient needs to be aware of the higher risk for additional surgery, especially if a second stenosis is found during probing.
Imran Haq, Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Zanna Currie, Showkat Mirza & Sachin Salvi
This case report deals with two patients with lacrimal sac swellings. Case 1 presented with bilateral sac swelling and Case 2 with a unilateral presentation. Dacrocystorhinostomy (DCR) followed by biopsies of both sacs in Case 1 revealed inflammatory polyps of the sac mucosa, identical in appearance to typical nasal allergic inflammatory polyps. The biopsies were accompanied by typical allergic mucin, featuring tiered mucin layers between which were numerous eosinophils, accompanied by Charcot–Leyden crystals. The histology of the dacryocystectomy specimen for Case 2 showed identical histopathological changes with the additional feature of prominent numbers of Immunoglobulin G (IgG)4-positive plasma cells in the stroma of the lacrimal sac inflammatory polyps. These features extend the sites affected by allergic inflammatory polyps and allergic mucin and possible pathogenesis is discussed.
Kaveh Vahdani, Geoffrey E. Rose
Continued “flow” symptoms after lacrimal drainage surgery are either due to physiologic failure, when flow through a patent anastomosis is insufficient relative to tear production, or anatomic obstruction, which is generally due to fibrosis at the valve of Rosenmuller. Thin common canalicular membranes may be treated by intranasal or transcanalicular1 trephination or by transcanalicular laser ablation. By a retrospective case-note review, we present the anatomic and symptomatic outcome after canalicular trephination and intubation in patients with medial canalicular obstruction after various open lacrimal surgeries; particular attention was directed at surgical difficulties and the subsequent control of symptoms.
Maria Araújo, Tânia Borges, Yolanda Mahia, Vânia Lages, António Pereira
The solitary fibrous tumor (STF) is a rare spindle cell tumor that most often occurs in the pleura, mediastinum and other serosal sites, but it can be found anywhere. The authors present a case report of a 35-year-old male who was submitted to an eventless left external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) due to epiphora. During the surgery no tumors or anomalous tissues were visualized. Five months later the patient presented a painless mass at the lower medial quadrant of the left orbit, near the lacrimal fossa. A computed tomography, a magnetic resonance imaging and an orbital ultrasound were performed. A round, very vascularized and highly contrast enhanced mass was found. An anterior orbitotomy was done. Histological aspects and immunohistochemical markers were consistent with STF. The tumor was not visualized during the DCR. The authors think that the growth of the tumor and the weakening of the tissues in the medial canthus after the DCR allowed the tumor to move anteriorly within the orbit.
Kashkouli, Mohsen B.; Karimi, Nasser; Khademi, Behzad
Purpose of review After failed conservative management, most clinicians treat congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in a conventional stepwise fashion: starting with probing, then repeat probing, next silicone intubation and/or balloon dilatation, and finally dacryocystorhinostomy. This approach is based on the patient’s age and previously failed procedures and recruits ‘one procedure for all’ CNLDO. A newly introduced approach is based on the type of obstruction and recruits ‘all procedures for one’ CNLDO. The aim of this review is to examine the best available evidence regarding CNLDO management.
Recent findings Recent articles support the concept that through intraoperative evaluation of obstruction in CNLDO, clinicians may predict probing failure and instantaneously employ more appropriate treatment modalities. This review addresses whether an age-based approach should be changed into a one-stage obstruction-based approach.
Summary An age-based approach treats CNLDO as a homogeneous disease and thus treats all patients with one predetermined procedure. A one-stage obstruction-based approach, however, considers CNLDO to be a heterogeneous disease, and therefore allows recruitment of all procedures simultaneously and selects the best intraoperatively. It may allow replacement of the conventional stepwise approach to CNLDO treatment provided that randomized trials verify its efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.
Satchi, Khami; McNab, Alan A.
Purpose: Acquired lacrimal canalicular obstruction has a variety of causes. In a small proportion of patients, no cause can be identified. This article describes a cohort of 27 patients with idiopathic acquired lacrimal canalicular obstruction encountered over a 28-year period.
Methods: The diagnostic database of the senior author was analyzed to identify all cases of idiopathic acquired lacrimal canalicular obstruction seen from 1990 to 2017. Demographic, clinical, and treatment details were analyzed. Patients with primary lacrimal punctal stenosis or closure were excluded from the analysis.
Results: The authors encountered 27 patients with idiopathic acquired lacrimal canalicular obstruction (17 female, 63%) aged 34 to 91 years (median: 65 years). The level of canalicular obstruction ranged from 1 to 10 mm from the punctum. Canalicular obstruction involved 1 canaliculus in 4 patients, 2 in 14 (ipsilateral in all except one), 3 in 3, and all 4 in 6. One patient who presented with ipsilateral upper and lower canalicular obstructions developed contralateral upper and lower obstructions several years later, and another patient redeveloped obstructions after initial successful surgical repair. In all cases, there were no features on history or examination to suggest a cause for the canalicular obstruction. Follow up ranged from 1 to 260 months (mean: 39 months). Sixteen patients underwent surgical repair, 11 with a dacryocystorhinostomy and placement of a Lester Jones glass bypass tube, 2 had a canaliculo-dacryocystorhinostomy (anastomosis of the canaliculus to the nose), 2 had dacryocystorhinostomy and trephination of the canalicular obstruction with silicone intubation, and 1 had a dacryocystorhinostomy alone to try and improve drainage through a single patent canaliculus.
Conclusion: Idiopathic acquired lacrimal canalicular obstruction is uncommon and occurs more frequently in older women. The condition may be slowly progressive and can affect one or more canaliculi at any level. Treatment is the same as for any other cause of acquired lacrimal canalicular obstruction.
Nandini Bothra, Suryasnata Rath, Ruchi Mittal, Devjyoti Tripathy
Purpose: To describe the outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) as a suitable alternative to dacryocystectomy (DCT) in cases of isolated lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis. Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional case series. Institutional review board approval was obtained for the study. The chart review of 13 patients who underwent external DCR surgery for isolated lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis between July 2012 and May 2018 was performed. Demographic details, clinical presentation, preoperative and intraoperative findings, surgical technique used, postoperative management, surgical outcome and duration of follow up were reviewed for each patient. Results: Thirteen patients were included in the study. Nine (69.2%) were male and four (30.8%) were female. The mean age was 22.1 years (range: 8–46 years). Involvement was unilateral in all cases. The commonest presenting complaint was epiphora with discharge seen in 10 cases (76.9%). An intrasac granuloma was grossly identified intraoperatively in 12 out of the 13 patients. Mean follow up was 26.9 months (range: 1.5–68 months). Till the last follow up, all cases were symptom free and did not have any evidence of recurrence of infection. Conclusion: From this series of cases reported by the authors, external DCR with appropriate precautions to prevent recurrence appears to be a suitable alternative to conventional DCT with excellent long-term outcomes without disease recurrence.