Edward J. Wladis , Hirah Khan & Valerie H. Chen
To compare the outcomes of patients with and without a history of dacryocystitis that undergo dacryocystorhinostomy without systemic intra- and post-operative antibiotics.
A retrospective review was performed to identify all cases of patients that received surgery under this paradigm and had at least three months of follow up care. Key demographic and outcome data were captured, and a statistical analysis was performed via a dedicated software package (Microsoft Excel, Redmond, WA).
For the study period, 83 patients without and 69 patients with a history of dacryocystitis were identified, and the two groups were not statistically significantly different in age, gender, or postoperative follow up duration (mean = 6.4 months for patients without and 6.3 months for those with dacryocystitis, respectively). No patient developed a postoperative infection or a recurrence of dacryocystitis during the follow up period.
While many surgeons routinely use systemic antibiotics in patients with a history of dacryocystitis who undergo dacryocystorhinostomy, these agents may not be necessary. As a result, patients may be able to avoid the complications and side effects inherent to systemic antibiotics. Large-scale, prospective studies will likely help to further clarify this issue.
Stewart, Christopher M.; Rose, Geoffrey E.
To examine histological changes within nasal and lacrimal sac mucosa harvested from patients with granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA) who required lacrimal drainage surgery. As these patients were considered quiescent on clinical and serological grounds, particular attention was paid to the presence of active vasculitis.
Retrospective noncomparative case series.
Patients with GPA who had open lacrimal drainage surgery under the care of a single surgeon between 1991 and 2017. All patients had paired biopsies of both nasal and ipsilateral lacrimal sac mucosa.
Biopsies of the nasal and lacrimal sac mucosa, taken from the operative site during either primary or revisional open dacryocystorhinostomy, were reported by experienced ophthalmic histopathologists. Outcome measures were the surgical appearance of the tissues and the proportion of each tissue showing histological evidence of active vasculitis, chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis, marked fibrosis without inflammation, or acute-on-chronic inflammatory changes.
Paired tissues were available from 47 patients (25 females; 53%) who had undergone 64 procedures (57 primary, 7 revisional). All patients had systemic disease, this being known prior to surgery in 43 patients (with 41/43 on long-established systemic immunosuppression) and suspected clinically after the initial lacrimal examination in 4/47. Most lacrimal sacs and nasal spaces showed a variety of abnormalities, this commonly being extensive scarring. Despite most patients being considered to have inactive systemic GPA, active vasculitis was evident in 23/64 (36%) lacrimal sac biopsies and 32/64 (50%) nasal mucosal biopsies—suggesting that serological markers may not be reliable guide to disease activity where disease is of limited volume (as, for example, with limited sino-nasal disease). Chronic lymphocytic inflammation was present in a further 35/64 (55%) sacs—associated with marked fibrosis in 5—and a further 25/64 (41%) nasal biopsies (with fibrosis in 2).
The lacrimal sac and nasal space are highly abnormal in most patients with GPA undergoing lacrimal drainage surgery. Despite having clinically and serologically inactive disease on established systemic immunotherapy, histological examination often shows unrecognized active vasculitis, which might indicate inadequate systemic immunosuppression for the underlying condition.
Lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa from patients with granulomatous polyangiitis undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy usually show chronic lymphocytic inflammation with marked fibrosis, but up to half reveal active vasculitis despite long-established systemic immunosuppression and apparently “quiescent” disease.
Singh, Swati; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: To provide a systematic review of the literature on congenital dacryocystoceles (CDCs) and summarize their presentations, investigations, management, and outcomes.
Methods: The authors performed a PubMed search of all articles published in English on CDCs. Data captured include demographics, clinical presentations, investigations, management modalities, complications, and outcomes. Fourteen major series (10 or more than 10 cases) and 89 isolated case reports/series on CDCs with a collective patient pool of 1,063 were studied in detail. Specific emphasis was laid on addressing the controversial issues including initial conservative versus surgical management and the role of endoscopic evaluation.
Results: Numerous terminologies have been used to describe CDC. Congenital dacryocystoceles are rare variants of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions and comprise of 0.1% to 0.3% of all such cases. There is a female predilection (64.2%, 683/1,063) and the mean age at presentation is at 7 days of birth. Initial conservative treatment can be a viable option in the absence of an acute dacryocystitis or a respiratory distress. Endoscopy-assisted probing appears to have better outcomes as compared with the in-office probing. Congenital dacryocystoceles with acute dacryocystitis are preferably managed with intravenous antibiotics and an early probing under endoscopy guidance to avoid missing intranasal cysts. Marsupialization is the preferred technique in the management of intranasal cysts. Silicone intubation was rarely used and has no definitive indications. Dacryocystorhinostomy is very rarely needed in the management of CDC.
Conclusions: Congenital dacryocystocele is a commonly accepted term and its use should be advocated to enhance uniformity in reporting. Endoscopic evaluation of CDC is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of associated intranasal cysts and enhances the rates of successful outcomes.
Yongwei Guo, Konrad, R. Koch, Ludwig M. Heindl
For more than 50 years, the Lester Jones tube—a bypass between the conjunctiva and the nasal cavity—is the gold standard for managing epiphora secondary to upper lacrimal outflow obstructions . However, these Pyrex glass tubes are often considered to have tube migration or extrusion in up to 50% of the cases . Recently, the StopLoss Jones tube (SLJT), an innovation in Pyrex glass tubes with an internal silicone flange bonded, was reported to reduce the risk for tube extrusion [3, 4]. Tube insertion requires a bony ostium, which in some cases might preexist due to previous dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). However, in patients without previous DCR, an external transcutaneous approach is needed for correct tube placement. Herein, we describe—to the best of our knowledge for the first time—a novel transcaruncular diode laser-assisted, StopLoss Lester Jones tube procedure without any skin incisions for the treatment of lacrimal canalicular obstructions……
Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Manpreet Singh, Richa Shrivastava, Ganesh Chandra Kuri, Samir Serasiya, Harsha Bhattacharjee
To report the long-term outcomes of the conjunctivo-rhinostomy surgery with labial mucosal graft performed for the patients of proximal lacrimal drainage system disorders.
Retrospective, single surgeon (KB), non-comparative study including patients having complete obstruction of the superior and inferior proximal lacrimal drainage system. All patients underwent conjunctivo-rhinostomy with labial mucosal graft insertion. Preoperatively, tear film break-up time and a fluorescein dye disappearance test was performed for each patient. A phaco aspiration tubing segment was used for supporting the mucosal graft for first 4 weeks followed by its removal. Minimum follow-up was 12 months. fluorescein dye disappearance test and nasal endoscopy were performed at each follow-up visit. Total resolution of epiphora and negative fluorescein dye disappearance test was defined as complete success.
Eighteen patients (12 males, 6 females) with a mean age of 39.94 years (range 7–76 years) all had a unilateral presentation. The indication for surgery was trauma (n = 11), failed dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with canalicular obstruction (n = 4), chronic ocular inflammation with complete punctal occlusion (n = 2), and post-radiotherapy (n = 1). At a mean follow-up of 5.38 years, complete success was observed in 12 (66.67%), partial success in 4 (22.22%) while in 2 (11.11%) patients, the procedure failed.
Labial mucosal graft in conjunctivo-rhinostomy is a successful adjunct which provides satisfactory long-term outcomes. Our surgical technique of directly suturing the mucosal graft to surrounding muscle provides better functionality to the system with eyelid blinking.
Becker, Bruce B.
Purpose: To compare the results of cultures of the proximal and distal segments of silicone tubes after dacryocystorhinostomy.
Methods: The medical records of patients undergoing a dacryocystorhinostomy and silicone intubation were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were cultures of both distal and proximal stent segments after removal, dye testing, evaluation of the tear meniscus, and notation of the presence or absence of discharge before and after removal. The exclusion criteria included the use of systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month before tube removal.
Results: Forty-six lacrimal systems in 40 patients were included, with 6 patients having bilateral dacryocystorhinostomies. There were no cases of dacryocystitis at the time of or after tube removal. Four (9%) of the dacryocystorhinostomies failed. Forty-one (89%) of the distal tube segments had positive cultures. The distal tube cultures grew 17 (36%) gram-positive bacteria, 21 (45%) gram-negative bacteria, 7 (15%) skin flora, and 2 (4%) fungi (6 distal segments had mixed cultures). Thirteen (28%) of the proximal tube segments had positive cultures. The proximal tube cultures were 5 (38%) gram-negative bacteria, 4 (31%) gram-positive bacteria, 3 (23%) skin flora, and 1 (8%) acid-fast bacteria. Four (31%) of the proximal tubes with positive cultures grew the same organism as the distal tube segment. Nine (69%) of the proximal tubes with positive cultures grew different organisms than the distal segment. Forty-two (91%) of all the proximal tube cultures were either negative or grew different organisms than the distal segment cultures.
Conclusions: The proximal segment of a silicone tube after a dacryocystorhinostomy may be a “privileged” area. There is usually a lack of growth or the growth of different organisms than those present on the distal tube segments. This may be explained by the protective nature of the tear film. The findings may also help to explain the low incidence of dacryocystitis in spite of the growth of virulent organisms on the distal tube segment after a dacryocystorhinostomy.
Ebube E. Obi, Oyinkan Olurin, Peter M. Mota, Zuzana Sipkova, Oana Vonica & Andrew R. Pearson
Lacrimal surgery aims to provide a low-resistance tear drainage passage. An assessment of lacrimal resistance guides decisions on surgery. We present results of a modified tear duct irrigation system that reliably measures lacrimal outflow resistance. Patients in a specialist lacrimal clinic had a full work-up to the point of tear duct syringing. The tear ducts were irrigated using a manometric system, which applied a fixed, known head of fluid pressure to a lacrimal cannula. Fluid flow is recorded and the lacrimal resistance derived as fluid pressure/fluid flow (units cmH20 secml-1, for simplicity presented as drops per minute, dpm). Patient groups were: A: Asymptomatic, A1: subgroup where the fellow symptomatic eye had a visible cause for watering, B: external visible cause for watering (ocular surface/lid/punctum), C: no externally visible cause, D: post op DCR, E: post syringing and probing, F: mixed/other. 444 tear ducts were examined. Mean flows (dpm) were: A1 (n = 19) 55; B (n = 183) 46; C (n = 142) 22: D (n = 38) 52. Excluding complete obstruction (n = 29), tear duct syringing only detected 48% of those with impaired manometric flow. Of those with a normal tear duct syringing, 53% had impaired manometric flow; 34% had a flow of 0 dpm. Differences in A1 versus C; B versus C and pre versus post dacryocystorhinostomy were all statistically significant (p < 0.05). The manometric system presented reliably measures lacrimal resistance and provides a substantial increase in sensitivity and specificity over conventional lacrimal syringing.
Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh & Milind N. Naik
The aim of this study was to illustrate the surgical techniques and utility of stereotactic or image-guided navigation in the management of lacrimal drainage obstruction in congenital arhinia-microphtalmia syndrome and review the relevant literature. Image-guided combined external and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed in a female, aged 16 years with congenital partial arhinia and ipsilateral microphthalmus. The lacrimal sac was bypassed to the contra lateral nasal cavity through a septal window. The surgical procedure was performed using the intra-operative optical image-guided Nav 1 PicoTM ENT navigation system with real-time intra-operative instrument geometry. Different phases of the surgical technique, adjunctive endoscopic procedures, intra-operative anatomical guidance, and utility at crucial phases of surgery were noted. A review of the literature was performed pertinent to arhinia and navigation guided lacrimal surgeries. Lacrimal bypass into the contra lateral nasal cavity even through a malformed septum is possible in partial arhinia syndromes. Detailed preoperative evaluation including 3D imaging studies, navigation guided planning of risk structures with intra-operative distance control and construction of meticulous surgical roadmaps were found to be essential factors in successful outcomes. At six months follow up after surgery, there was a complete and contiguous healed mucosal anastomosis with lacrimal system patent on irrigation and resolution of epiphora. Combined external and endoscopic approach is useful in partial arhinia syndromes. Image guidance is a very useful adjunctive tool that facilitates safe and precise surgery in the management of such complex lacrimal surgeries.
Adam R. Sweeney, Greg E. Davis, Shu-Hong Chang & Arash Jian-Amadi
This article determines the efficacy of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endoDCR) in patients who have undergone adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (XRT) following head and neck cancer resection. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent endoDCR between 2006 and 2014 at a tertiary referral center. Cases were reviewed and selected for the following inclusion criteria: history of adjuvant sinonasal XRT following head and neck cancer resection, preoperative probing and irrigation demonstrating nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO), postoperative probing and irrigation following silicone tube extubation. Exclusion criteria included active dacryocystitis, postoperative follow-up of less than 4 months, presence of epiphora prior to XRT, lack of probing/irrigation at preoperative or postoperative visit, and lid malposition including ectropion, facial palsy, and/or poor tear pump. Six patients (7 eyes) met the selection criteria. EndoDCR was performed at a mean time of 30 months following last radiation treatment (range, 3–71 months). Mitomycin C was used in 4/7 cases. Silicone tube removal occurred between 3–8 months postoperatively. Five out of 6 patients had postoperative sinonasal debridement and nasal saline/corticosteroid irrigation. Five out of 6 patients (83%) had both resolution of epiphora and anatomic patency confirmed by probing and irrigation. Our experience suggests that endoDCR procedures can be effective in patients with NLDO following prior sinonasal XRT for head and neck neoplasms. Postoperative management with sinonasal debridement and combined saline/corticosteroid nasal irrigation may help to improve surgical success in patients with increased post-radiotherapy mucosal inflammation.