Enright, Nicholas J.; Brown, Sebastian J.; Rouse, Hannah C.; McNab, Alan A.; Hardy, Thomas G.
Purpose: To describe the demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcome in 10 cases of lacrimal sac diverticulum and to review the literature on this topic, and to determine the incidence of diverticula from a series of dacryocystograms.
Methods: Data were collected for all consecutive patients with lacrimal sac diverticulum seen between 2003 and 2015, including patient demographics, clinical presentation, imaging findings, treatment, and follow-up. A systematic literature review was performed for cases of lacrimal sac diverticulum. A retrospective review of 400 consecutive dacryocystograms was performed to determine the incidence of lacrimal sac diverticulum.
Results: Ten cases (9 patients) of lacrimal sac diverticulum are described, and a further 36 cases were discovered through a literature review. Epiphora, swelling, and dacryocystitis and/or diverticulitis were the most common presenting complaints. When all 46 cases are combined, lacrimal patency was demonstrated in 50% of cases. Dacryocystography diagnosed only 57% of patients with diverticulum, not helped by the addition of ultrasound or CT. The incidence of diverticulum was 3.2% on review of 400 consecutive dacryocystograms (1.6% per lacrimal system). Surgical management with dacryocystorhinostomy and/or diverticulum excision was effective in all 34 operated cases at resolving symptoms in the case series and literature review.
Conclusions: Lacrimal sac diverticula present with epiphora, medial canthal swelling, dacryocystitis, and/or diverticulitis. Dacryocystography, despite being the most sensitive radiologic test, is only 59% sensitive, and adjunctive CT and ultrasound have limited use. Surgical management is recommended because conservative management often fails. Dacryocystorhinostomy, diverticulum excision, or a combination thereof appears to be equivalent in achieving resolution of symptoms.