Adam R. Sweeney, Christopher R. Dermarkarian, Katherine J. Williams, Richard C. Allen & Michael T. Yen
Purpose: To report the efficacy of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) frontalis suspension for blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia and postoperative botulinum toxin requirements.
Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients with blepharospasm and eyelid apraxia who underwent frontalis suspension. The primary outcome was a surgical success, defined by surgeon- and patient-reported success in postoperative eyelid opening. Comparative statistical analyses of botulinum toxin dosage and treatment intervals were performed amongst patients before and after frontalis suspension ptosis repair.
Results: Five patients (10 eyelids) met the study criteria, of which 40% were female. Mean age was 63.2 years. All patients had successful surgical outcomes based on physician-reported and patient reported satisfaction with the postoperative eyelid opening. Average follow-up was 14 months. Preoperative botulinum toxin treatments averaged 80.4 units (range 32–110, SD 33.2) to the periocular region over an average of 9.6-week intervals. Postoperative botulinum toxin treatments averaged 61.4 units (range 24–110, SD 34.7) to the periocular region over an overage of 9.8-week intervals. No patients experienced postoperative exposure keratopathy, extrusion of the sling, or postoperative infection.
Conclusions: Frontalis suspension using PTFE suture in the setting of blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia was found to be a safe and effective procedure. Frontalis suspension in this population is not a substitute for botulinum toxin treatment but may allow for reduced treatment dosage. Frontalis suspension appears to increase patient functionality with improved eyelid opening in patients with blepharospasm with eyelid apraxia.
Kubra Serefoglu Cabuk, Ugur Tunc, Gamze Ozturk Karabulut, Korhan Fazil, Zehra Karaagac Gunaydin, Senay Asik Nacaroglu & Muhittin Taskapili
This study aims to compare serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxy (OH)-vitamin D levels in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and healthy subjects and to determine their association with disease severity and frequency.
This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty patients (female, 39; male, 11) with BEB and 22 healthy subjects (female, 15; male, 7) included in the study. Serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin D levels of BEB and healthy groups were measured. Blepharospasm severity and frequency were assessed using scales ranging from 0 to 4 by following the Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS).
Though there was no significant difference regarding magnesium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)-vitamin D levels between the two groups, serum calcium levels of the BEB group were significantly lower than the control group (9.5 ± 0.4 and 9.9 ± 0.4 mg/dl, respectively; P = 0.002), although in the normal range (9–10.5 mg/dl). In the BEB group, the mean Jankovic severity and frequency scores were 3.29 ± 0.54 and 3.59 ± 0.61, respectively. There was a moderate negative correlation between serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels and Jankovic severity score (r = − 0.332; P = 0.022).
Serum calcium levels of the BEB group were significantly lower than the healthy group. Serum vitamin D levels showed a moderate negative correlation with disease severity. The role of calcium and vitamin D in the evolution of the BEB need further investigation at the cellular and anatomical levels.
Jonathan A. Go, Ashley N. Anderson, Ashwini Kini, Bayan Al Othman & Andrew G. Lee
John C Bladen, Ilan Feldman, Maribel Favor, Marizol Dizon, Andre Litwin & Raman Malhotra
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of onabotulinum used to treat facial dystonia and compare a flexible and fixed treatment regimen.
This was a retrospective comparative study looking at benign essential blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and aberrant facial nerve regeneration synkinesis (AFR) treatment with onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) over a minimum of 10 years. Fifty-one patients were recruited into the study, with each dystonia subgroup having 17 patients. Blepharospasm disability score (BDS), subjective improvement score (SIS), duration of maximal effect (DME) and complications were recorded at each visit.
The mean age was 63 years and gender predominately female. Thirty-seven patients underwent flexible treatment intervals compared to 14 fixed treatment intervals, averaging 3.4 and 4 per annum, respectively. Mean BDS significantly improved from 6 to 3 at last review across all 3 groups, with the highest effect on BEB. BDS improvement was greater in flexible intervals. SIS remained similar for all three conditions during follow-up, but in those undergoing flexible intervals, SIS increased by a small margin compared to fixed interval. Mean DME was 10.5 weeks across all dystonias, but increased progressively only in the flexible interval group. Complications included ptosis (30%), dry eye (14%) and lagophthalmos (8%).
Flexible onabotulinum provided better long-term relief on BDS for facial dystonia than a fixed regimen. Flexible interval treatment may also provide better patient satisfaction and longer DME compared to fixed treatment. Both have similar complication rates. With flexible treatment however, fewer injections were required over 10 years, leading to cost saving.
Jurij R. Bilyk, MD, Michael T. Yen, MD, Elizabeth A. Bradley, MD, Edward J. Wladis, MD, Louise A. Mawn, MD
To review the medical literature on the outcomes and complications of various Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxins for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).
Literature searches were last conducted in February 2017 in PubMed for articles published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without language limitations; studies published before 2000 were excluded. The combined searches yielded 127 citations. Of these, 13 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment, and the panel methodologist assigned ratings to them according to the level of evidence.
A combined total of 1523 patients (1143 with BEB and 380 with HFS) were included in the 13 studies. Five studies provided level I evidence, 2 studies provided level II evidence, and 6 studies provided level III evidence. Pretarsal injections were more efficacious than preseptal injections (96% vs. 86%, respectively). Pretarsal injections also resulted in a higher response rate on clinical scales (P < 0.05) and a longer duration of maximum response for both HFS and BEB. Patients with HFS require lower overall doses of onabotulinumtoxinA than patients with BEB for a similar duration of effect. Adverse events were dose related, and they occurred more frequently in patients who were given more units.
Level I evidence supports the efficacy of Botox (Allergan Corp., Irvine, CA), Meditoxin, and Xeomin (Merz Pharmaceuticals, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) for the treatment of BEB. Meditoxin and Botox have equivalent effectiveness and incidence of adverse events for BEB and HFS. Dysport (Ipsen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc, Paris, France) seems to have efficacy similar to Botox and Meditoxin for BEB and HFS, but any definitive conclusions from the 2 level II studies in this review are limited by differences in the methodologies used. Higher doses of Botox and Dysport result in more adverse events. Repeated treatments using Botox seem to maintain efficacy for treatment of facial dystonias over a follow-up period of at least 10 years, based on level III evidence.
Yen, Michael T.
Purpose of review To review new developments in the medical and surgical treatment options for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB).
Recent findings Botulinum toxin injections remain the mainstay treatment for BEB with several formulations currently commercially available. Reports in the medical literature support photochromatic modulation for the symptoms of photophobia, as well as oral medications and surgical myectomy for control of the motor signs of eyelid protractor spasm.
Summary Although there remains no cure for BEB, several treatment options are available to effectively manage the signs and symptoms of the condition.
Stewart, Krista J.; Joseph, Shannon S.; Douglas, Raymond S.
Purpose: To describe a modified technique of orbicularis oculi myectomy for refractory blepharospasm. This technique includes removal of orbicularis muscle, reformation of the eyelid crease and pretarsal platform using fibrin sealant (Tisseel), and topical 5-fluorouracil to reduce scar formation and improve aesthetic outcome.
Methods: Retrospective chart review of 7 patients who underwent bilateral orbicularis oculi myectomy with our technique from 2013 to 2016. Outcome measures were postoperative botulinum toxin dose, frequency, duration between treatments, the amount of lagophthalmos, severity of dry eye, and patient satisfaction with aesthetic and functional outcome.
Results: Patients who underwent the aesthetic myectomy technique had significantly decreased botulinum toxin use with relief of symptoms postoperatively. Only 1 of 7 patients experienced mild dry eye symptoms postoperatively, managed with artificial tears. All patients were satisfied with the aesthetic and functional outcome.
Conclusions: The aesthetic myectomy technique provides effective treatment for blepharospasm with good functional and aesthetic outcome.