Reconstruction of the Orbit and Anophthalmic Socket Using the Dermis Fat Graft: A Major Review
Jovanovic, Nina ; Carniciu, Anaïs ; Russell, William W. B.S; Jarocki, Adrienne; Kahana, AlonRead More
To perform a comprehensive review of dermis fat graft (DFG) in socket reconstruction and illustrate the technical nuances and outcomes using a retrospective case review.
A literature search of 143 texts was reviewed. A retrospective case series of 34 patients following primary or secondary DFG after enucleation at a single institution (2009–2019) was performed. Clinical outcomes were statistically analyzed. Variables investigated included age, sex, race, surgical indication, muscle reattachment, complications, motility, eyelid position, prosthesis fit, and need for additional surgery.
The history of DFG, use in socket reconstruction, primary and secondary indications, and surgical techniques are described. Thirty-two adults and 2 pediatric cases of DFG were reviewed; 18.75% indications were primary and 81.25% were secondary. Good eyelid position was observed in 83.3% of patients with primary DFG versus 37.5% with secondary DFG (p = 0.07). Postoperative complications occurred in 58.8% of patients, were typically mild, and resolved with minimal or no intervention. No statistically significant differences were found between occurrence of any particular complication in primary versus secondary DFG placement (p = 0.36) or between primary and secondary DFG placement and the need for additional surgery (p = 1.0). Among the 67.7% patients who had implant exposure or extrusion as an indication for DFG, 39.1% required additional surgery within 2 years. Advanced age was not associated with higher complication rates (p = 0.12).
DFG is an excellent option for socket reconstruction, particularly in cases involving pediatric patients, complicated orbits, history of multiple previous surgeries, and inflamed, contracted, or scarred sockets.
Dermis fat grafting is an excellent option for primary or secondary socket reconstruction in pediatric and adult patients, particularly when a complex clinical course is anticipated.