Prognostic factors for local recurrence and survival and impact of local treatments on survival in lacrimal gland carcinoma
Joshua Richard Ford, Maria Laura Rubin, Steven Jay Frank, Jing Ning, James Matthew Debnam, Diana Bell, Adel El-Naggar, Renata Ferrarotto, Bita EsmaeliRead More
Background/aims To identify prognostic factors for local recurrence, distant metastasis and disease-specific survival (DSS) for lacrimal gland carcinoma.
Methods All consecutive patients with lacrimal gland carcinoma treated from January 1998 through December 2018 were included. Log-rank tests and univariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study risk factors and survival.
Results Overall, 55 patients were included in this study, and 5 patients were excluded from the survival analysis. Median age was 46 years (range: 10–76). 43 patients (78%) had adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). 31 patients (56%) had T2 disease at presentation. 28 patients (51%) underwent orbital exenteration with or without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiation, 26 (47%) underwent eye-sparing surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and 1 received palliative chemoradiation. 11 patients (22%) experienced local recurrence; 14 (29%) experienced distant metastasis. Five- and 10-year local-recurrence-free survival rates were 0.71 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.88), and 5- and 10-year distant-metastasis-free survival rates were 0.67 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.85) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.81), respectively. There was no significant difference in risks of local recurrence, distant metastasis or DSS between ACC patients who had orbital exenteration and those who had eye-sparing surgery. Perineural invasion was negatively associated with local-recurrence-free survival (p=0.02). Among patients with ACC, basaloid/solid histologic type was associated with significantly worse DSS than non-basaloid/solid histologic type (p<0.01).
Conclusions For lacrimal gland carcinoma, orbital exenteration with adjuvant therapy and eye-sparing surgery with adjuvant therapy are associated with similar recurrence outcomes. Eye-sparing surgery is associated with better DSS. Perineural invasion is a risk factor for local recurrence. ACC with basaloid/solid subtype correlates with worse DSS.