Instrument Gauge and Type in Uveal Melanoma Fine Needle Biopsy: Implications for Diagnostic Yield and Molecular Prognostication
Lindsay K. Klofas,Carley M. Bogan,Alice C. Coogan,Stephen J. Schultenover,Vivian L. Weiss,Anthony B. DanielsRead More
To systematically evaluate and compare the effects of using small-gauge needles and vitrectors on the ability to obtain adequate diagnostic and prognostic uveal melanoma biopsy specimens.
Comparative evaluation of biopsy instruments.
Survival of uveal melanoma cells was evaluated in vitro following needle aspiration. Five therapeutically enucleated eyes were sampled in triplicate for ex vivo diagnostic biopsy experiments with 25 gauge (25 G) needle, 27 gauge (27 G) needle, and 27 G vitrector. During surgery in 8 patients, paired diagnostic transscleral fine needle aspiration biopsies were performed using both 25 G and 27 G needles. A review of cytologic specimens was performed by a panel of 3 expert cytopathologists. A retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate 100 consecutive tumors undergoing prognostic biopsy for gene expression profiling to assess the relationship between needle gauge and prognostic adequacy.
No significant cell shearing of uveal melanoma cells occurred in vitro with 25 G, 27 G, or 30 G needles. For ex vivo biopsy samples, diagnostic yield was 100% using 25 G needle (5/5) or 27 G vitrector (5/5) but 60% using a 27 G needle (3/5). For in vivo samples, no difference in diagnostic yield was found between 25 G (75%, 6/8) or 27 G (75%, 6/8) needle sizes. Of 100 molecular prognostic biopsy samples evaluated, 65 were obtained using 27 G needles; for these biopsies, the prognostic yield was 65/65 (100%).
For diagnostic biopsy of uveal melanoma, a larger-gauge needle or a 27 G vitrector may have better overall cellularity and diagnostic yield when compared to a 27 G needle. However, for much more common molecular prognostic testing, a 27 G needle provided adequate sample in 100% (65/65) of cases, and a larger needle provided no additional benefit.