Immunotherapy for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Orbital Extension
Hakan Demirci, Victor M. Elner, F. Yesim Demirci, Dan R Robinson, Arul Chinnaiyan, Dianne Schlachter, Shannon Joseph, Francis WordenRead More
The standard therapy for advanced conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (cSSC) extending into the orbit is exenteration, which is a mutilating surgery causing facial disfigurement and psychological distress. Although some studies report no differences in metastasis or recurrence rates in patients treated with exenteration versus local tumor excision, the latter still causes severe morbidity because of fixed strabismus and exposure keratopathy, significantly impairing visual function and comfort in advanced cSSC. Thus, an unmet need exists for a therapy that will improve the outcomes in cSCC with orbital extension.