Deep lateral orbital decompression for Graves orbitopathy: a systematic review
To systematically review the literature on the deep lateral orbital decompression (DLD).
The authors searched the MEDLINE, Lilac, Scopus, and EMBASE databases for all articles in English, Spanish, and French that used as keywords the terms orbital decompression and lateral wall. Two articles in German were also included. Data retrieved included the number of patients and orbits operated, types of the approach employed, exophthalmometric and horizontal eye position changes, and complications. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the mean Hertel changes induced by the surgery were calculated from series with 15 or more data.
Of the 204 publications initially retrieved, 131 were included. Detailed surgical techniques were analyzed from 59 articles representing 4559 procedures of 2705 patients. In 45.8% of the reports, the orbits were decompressed ab-interno. Ab-externo and rim-off techniques were used in 25.4% and 28.8% of the orbits, respectively. Mean and 95% CI intervals of Hertel changes, pooled from 15 articles, indicate that the effect of the surgery is not related to the technique and ranges from 2.5 to 4.5 mm. The rate of new onset of diplopia varied from zero to 8.6%. Several complications have been reported including dry eye, oscillopsia, temporal howling, lateral rectus damage, and bleeding. Unilateral amaurosis and subdural hematoma have been described in only one patients each.
The low rate of new-onset diplopia is the main benefit of DLD. Prospective studies are needed to compare the rate of complications induced by the 3 main surgical techniques used.