Clinical treatment options for early-stage and advanced conjunctival melanoma
Yue Zeng, Chunhong Hu, Long Shu, Yue Pan BS, Lishu Zhao, Xingxiang Pu, Fang WuRead More
Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is an ocular malignant tumor arising from the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and from the caruncle. The treatment of early-stage CM is wide local excision, followed by cryotherapy to the margins and adjuvant therapy postoperatively. Advanced CM has a poor prognosis, and there is no consensus on its management. With the development of precision medicine, the identification of genetic alterations assumes great importance. The genetic characteristics of CM, such as BRAF, NRAS, and NF1 mutations, may provide potential therapeutic targets. For locally advanced tumors and metastatic disease, targeted therapy such as BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors in vitro show therapeutic benefit. Some individual case reports indicate their potential effectiveness in advanced CM. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors, have been successfully used for advanced cutaneous melanoma and may be effective in CM. Limited clinical case reports found immune checkpoint inhibitors effective in advanced CM. More clinical studies are needed.