Arnaud Martel, Stephanie Baillif, Sacha Nahon-Esteve, Jacques Lagier, Mehrad Hamedani, Gilles Poissonnet
Orbital exenteration is a radical and disfiguring surgery mainly performed in specialized tertiary care centers. Orbital exenteration has long been considered the treatment of choice for managing periocular tumors invading the orbit or primary orbital malignancies. Over the past decades, attention has been directed toward reducing the perioperative morbidity by developing new surgical devices and new strategies and promoting cosmetic rehabilitation by providing adequate facial prostheses. Despite these advances, several studies have questioned the role of orbital exenteration in improving overall survival. The last decade has been marked by the emergence of a new paradigm: the “eye-sparing” strategies based on conservative surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy and/or targeted therapies and immunotherapies. We summarize the data on orbital exenteration, including epidemiology, etiologies, use of surgical ablative and reconstructive techniques, complications, outcomes, and the related controversies.
Yue Zeng, Chunhong Hu, Long Shu, Yue Pan BS, Lishu Zhao, Xingxiang Pu, Fang Wu
Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is an ocular malignant tumor arising from the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and from the caruncle. The treatment of early-stage CM is wide local excision, followed by cryotherapy to the margins and adjuvant therapy postoperatively. Advanced CM has a poor prognosis, and there is no consensus on its management. With the development of precision medicine, the identification of genetic alterations assumes great importance. The genetic characteristics of CM, such as BRAF, NRAS, and NF1 mutations, may provide potential therapeutic targets. For locally advanced tumors and metastatic disease, targeted therapy such as BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors in vitro show therapeutic benefit. Some individual case reports indicate their potential effectiveness in advanced CM. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors, have been successfully used for advanced cutaneous melanoma and may be effective in CM. Limited clinical case reports found immune checkpoint inhibitors effective in advanced CM. More clinical studies are needed.
Vinodh Kakkassery MD, PhD,Sarah E. Coupland MD, PhD,Ludwig M. Heindl MD, PhD, MSc
Iris lymphomas are rare malignant neoplasms arising either as primary tumors in the iris or as secondary tumors involving the iris. We summarize previously published data and make recommendations for work-up strategies for cases of suspected iris lymphoma. Our objective is to provide a structured overview of the typical clinical symptoms and signs, the pathologic, ophthalmic, as well as hematologic work-up for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of iris lymphomas and offer a flowchart on how to diagnose and treat these tumors.
Ingvild Ramberg, Peter Bjerre Toft, Steffen Heegaard
Malignant tumors of epithelial origin are the most frequent neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). A total of 539 cases are reported in the literature from 1960 to 2019. LDS carcinoma is a disease of the middle-aged and elderly population, with a median age at diagnosis of 57 years. Overall, there is a slight male predominance. Reported risk factors are chronic inflammation, LDS papilloma, and infection with oncogenic viruses. Symptoms of an LDS carcinoma resemble those of benign, inflammatory diseases, with epiphora from obstruction of the LDS as the most frequently encountered symptom. The median time from symptoms to diagnosis is 12 months and even longer for patients reporting epiphora as the only initial symptom. This diagnostic delay leads to a substantial fraction of patients with locally advanced tumors and lymph node spread at the time of diagnosis. Surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for most patients; however, the extension and aggressiveness of the disease and the patient’s general health and preferences determine the definite treatment. Five-year overall survival is reported to range from 61 to 87.6%. A large tumor size and positive lymph node status correlate with a decreased overall and disease-free survival.
Alexandra L. Farrall, Justine R. Smith
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) may manifest initially in the eye (termed vitreoretinal lymphoma or VRL) or in non-ocular CNS compartments, or in both. The nature of the onset of PCNSL implies two clinical specialists — ophthalmologists and neuro-oncologists — independently may assess the primary presentation of this rare malignancy. Clinically relevant perspectives on expectations of PCNSL manifestation in both ocular and non-ocular CNS compartments would help inform management practices in each specialty, which should impact clinical outcomes. A recent increase in the number of published PCNSL cohort studies provides new opportunity to review the current prevalence rates of ocular involvement, and the timing of this involvement over the course of disease. In PCNSL cohorts defined by non-ocular CNS compartment involvement, with or without ocular involvement (termed “PCNSL ± ocular involvement” cohorts), mean rates of concomitant VRL at diagnosis, or at any time during the course, are 10% and 16%, respectively. Only a few individuals within this cohort group present with exclusive eye disease (<5%), and the rate of secondary ocular involvement is only 5–9%. In PCNSL cohorts defined by the involvement of the ocular compartment, with or without non-ocular CNS involvement (termed “VRL ± non-ocular CNS involvement” cohorts), 58% of persons have a primary ocular diagnosis, which carries a 50% risk of secondary involvement in the CNS beyond the eye. Rates of non-ocular CNS involvement with VRL at diagnosis or over the course of disease are 41% and 69%, respectively.
Ankit Singh Tomar, Paul T. Finger, Codrin E. Iacob
Intraocular leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle tumor. First recognized before the era of immunohistochemistry, uveal leiomyomas have been described in case reports and small case series. We add 3 new cases, for a total of 80. Of these, there were 29 men and 51 women. The mean and median ages were 35.8 and 30.5 years respectively, with a range of 8 to 80 years. Curiously, ciliary body tumors were more common in females, whereas iris and posterior choroidal leiomyomas were more prevalent in males. Infrequently associated with systemic fibroids, nuclear expression of sex steroid receptors was inconsistent. Iris and posterior choroidal leiomyoma were predominantly amelanotic, while 40% of ciliary body leiomyomas were brown. Two-thirds of the leiomyomas blocked transillumination partially or completely, a feature shared by uveal melanoma. In general, low-frequency ultrasound imaging reveals low to moderate internal reflectivity; however, high-frequency anterior uveal ultrasound was used to localize a leiomyoma as resident in the suprachoroidal space with an overlying layer of intact choroid. In the few cases examined by physiologic imaging, increased metabolic activity (typically associated with malignancy and inflammation) has been noted. We found that pigmented uveal leiomyomas can be clinically identical to melanoma. Therefore, histopathology with immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin was the most reliable diagnostic method to differentiate pigmented uveal leiomyoma from melanoma. Treatment is governed by the clinical diagnosis, tumor size and location, as well as prognosis for vision and globe preservation.
Juan Valenzuela, Gabrielle A. Yeaney, Eric D. Hsi, Elizabeth M. Azzato, David M. Peereboom, Arun D. Singh
Twenty-eight patients were identified with large B-cell lymphoma of the uvea. Uveal involvement was iris (1 case), ciliary body (1 case), or choroidal in 14 cases. Panuveal involvement was observed in 12 cases. The clinical presentation could be categorized into uveitis (8), intraocular mass (9), neovascular glaucoma (4), and vascular disorders (4). The majority (21 cases, 77%) were diagnosed at autopsy (11) or after enucleation (10). Only 7 were diagnosed with conservative techniques. Histopathologically, 3 distinct subgroups of large B-cell lymphoma could be identified: 15 were characterized as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 11 as intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, and 2 as plasmablastic lymphoma. All cases had a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 14 months. Most cases (19, 67%) represented secondary uveal involvement with widespread systemic lymphoma at ophthalmic presentation. Six cases were treated with radiotherapy, most of these diagnosed before the 1990s (4). Subsequent cases (9) received systemic or local chemotherapy and adjunct radiotherapy, depending on the organs affected. Two cases were treated only with enucleation, and systemic treatment was not specified in 13 cases. Large B-cell lymphoma can rarely involve the uvea. The presenting features are nonspecific, often leading to enucleation. Effective therapy is not known. In all 3 variants, the aggressive nature and widespread involvement at ophthalmic presentation is associated with short survival.
Thonnie Rose O. See, Gustav Stålhammar, Tina Tang, Joshua S. Manusow, David R. Jordan, Jeffrey A. Nerad, Robert C. Kersten, Marc Yonkers, Nasreen A. Syed, Seymour Brownstein, Hans E. Grossniklaus
Primary ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a rare epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland. Herein we report 5 cases and review 29 published cases of PDA of the lacrimal gland. Among these 5 cases, the most common clinical presentation was painless swelling and/or proptosis of their eye. The size of the lesions ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 cm. Histopathologic examination revealed proliferations of ductal or gland-like cells with vesiculated pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Tumor cells stained positive for epithelial and apocrine differentiation markers. Immunohistochemistry for human epidermal growth factor 2 was positive in 2 of the 4 cases. Four of the five patients were alive at the last follow-up visit. One died with bone metastases, which were diagnosed 25 months after exenteration and then survived an additional 51 months. On reviewing of twenty-nine previously published cases of PDA, the mean age of diagnosis was 58 years, with a male predominance (75%). Fifteen patients (54%) had distant metastases, 1 (4%) had local recurrence, and 10 (37%) suffered from a PDA-related death. PDA is a high-grade aggressive epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland. Although rare, awareness and recognition of this malignancy are important to help determine prognosis and treatment options.
Matthew A. DelMauro, Danielle C. Kalberer, I Rand Rodgers
Mohs micrographic surgery and reconstruction is considered by many as the gold standard for treatment of cutaneous malignancies arising in the periorbital region. It has a high rate of tumor clearance and a low rate of postsurgical complications. One of the most common complications is surgical site infection. Although surgical site infection occurs in less than 3% of patients, it may result in significant morbidity. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to identifying risk factors associated with the development of a postsurgical infection. We examine the impact of endogenous factors (which determine the efficacy of a patient’s immune system), exogenous factors (which influence a patient’s exposure to bacterial pathogens), and antimicrobial interventions on the incidence of surgical site infection and propose evidence-based recommendations.
Inbal Avisar, Yoav Nahum, Michael Mimouni, Israel Kremer, Raman Malhotra
The normal structure and function of the eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctival fornices, and lacrimal system are essential for the health of the ocular surface, and abnormalities of these structures accompany many cases of ocular surface disease. We describe the role of oculoplastic intervention in the context of ocular surface disease, focusing on blink disorders, lagophthalmos, entropion, lid scarring and keratinization, trichiasis, and punctal and lacrimal sac disease.