Good long-term visual outcomes of parapapillary choroidal melanoma patients treated with proton therapy: a comparative study
To evaluate why small- and certain medium-sized parapapillary choroidal melanoma (pcM) patients treated with hypo-fractionated proton therapy (PT) retain excellent long-term visual acuity (VA) and assess the negative predictive factors for retaining good vision (≤ 0.2 logMAR (≥ 0.6 decimal) after 5 years.
This single-center, retrospective, comparative study recruited consecutive pcM patients that were treated with PT. Between 1984 and 2005, 609 patients received a total of 60 CGE, of whom 310 met the following inclusion criteria: posterior tumor border ≤ 2.5 mm from the optic disc, largest tumor diameter ≤ 17.9 mm, tumor thickness ≤ 5.2 mm and available follow-up data for at least 5 years.
Mean follow-up was 120.8 ± 48.8 months (54.0–295.0). Out of 310 patients, 64 (21%) maintained a VA ≤ 0.2 logMAR (≥ 0.6 decimal) for at least 5 years following PT and were allocated to the “good visual outcome” (GVO) group, while the remaining 246 (79%) constituted the “poor visual outcome” (PVO) group, subdivided into 70 (22%) with a VA of 0.3–1.0 logMAR (0.1–0.5 decimal) and 157 (57%) patients with a VA > 1.0 logMAR (< 0.1 decimal). On multivariate analysis, older age (P = 0.04), tumor localization ≤ 0.5 mm to the fovea (P < 0.03), volume of the optic disc and macula receiving 50% of dose (30 CGE) (P = 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively) were independent negative predictors of GVO.
Of 310 small- to medium-sized pcM patients successfully treated with PT, 21% retained a VA ≤ 0.2 logMAR (≥ 0.6 decimal) for at least 5 years. Strongest negative predictive factor for retaining good long-term vision was the volume of the macula irradiated with at least 30 Gy.