Transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty in patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Sang Min Lee, Helen LewRead More
To investigate the lacrimal drainage system (LDS) from the punctum to the inferior meatus and the clinical outcomes of transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty and silicone intubation through dacryoendoscopy in patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO).
We conducted a retrospective chart review of 203 cases from 156 patients who underwent dacryoendoscopy (FT-203F; Fibertech Co., Tokyo, Japan) and sheath-guided silicone intubation for PANDO from December 2014 to March 2018. Clinical characteristics, tear meniscus height, irrigation test, dacryocystographic findings, and dacryoendoscopic findings related to clinical factors and surgical outcomes were evaluated.
The study population consisted of 44 males and 119 females (mean age, 60.4 ± 13.6 years). The mean epiphora duration was 3.8 ± 4.8 years. Dacryoendoscopic findings revealed that the following factors were associated with LDS obstruction (% cases): mucus, 39.9%; fibrotic membrane, 19.2%; stones, 9.4%; granulation, 8.9%; and stenosis, 2.7%. The locations of obstruction were as follows (% cases): nasolacrimal duct, 35.7%; canaliculus, 33.0%; sac, 27.6%; and inferior meatus, 3.5%. The types of LDS obstruction were classified into two groups: secretory group (n = 118) that included mucus, stones, and granulation, and structural group (n = 85) associated with the membrane and stenosis; the pattern of them was divided into focal (n = 134) and diffuse (n = 76). The overall success rate was 86.2%. The success rate of the structural group (95.3%) was significantly higher than that of the secretory group (79.7%) (p = 0.001). All membranous obstruction cases at the inferior meatus were treated successfully, regardless of the irrigation test results. The success rate of the focal group (93.1%) was significantly higher than that of the diffuse group (74.0%) (p = 0.003).
Dacryoendoscopic findings were informative regarding the clinical factors leading to LDS in PANDO patients. Mucus and stones in the lacrimal sac were common findings of functional lacrimal duct obstruction. Membranous obstruction and stenosis could be managed by recanalization under direct visualization. Transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty and silicone intubation is considered to be a safe and effective procedure, sparing the patient from bony destruction in selected cases of PANDO.