Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction update study (CUP study): paper I—role and outcomes of Crigler’s lacrimal sac compression
To assess the exclusive role and outcomes of Crigler’s lacrimal sac compression in the management of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO).
Retrospective interventional case-series was performed on patients diagnosed with CNLDO and who were advised Crigler’s lacrimal sac compression (CLSC) at a tertiary care Dacryology Institute from Jan 2016 to June 2019. CNLDO patients who were practicing incorrect techniques of lacrimal sac compression at presentation were separately assessed. All the patients were assigned to four groups (Gr 1: 0–3 months, Gr 2: >3 & <6 months, Gr 3: >6 & <9 months and Gr 4: >9 and <12 months) based on the age at which the CLSC was initiated and followed up quarterly or as needed till at least 1 year of age. The parameters studied include patient demographics, clinical presentation, age of initiation of CLSC, success rate with CLSC, and need for additional interventions. Success was defined as the subjective resolution of epiphora and discharge with objective measures of normal tear meniscus height and dye clearance on fluorescein dye disappearance test.
A total number of 1240 patients with CNLDO were assessed. Of these, 1037 patients were advised correct techniques of CLSC from the beginning, and the remaining 203 patients were referred but performing it incorrectly at presentation. Of the 1037 patients, 236 were lost to follow-up; hence, a total of 1004 patients (801 + 203) were included for final analysis. CLSC was found to be an effective conservative strategy in the management of CNLDO. The rate of resolution of CNLDO in Gr 1 to Gr 4 was 87.3%, 78.9%, 77.9%, and 76.8%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the outcomes based on the age of CLSC initiation. The referred patients whose techniques were rectified following the initial incorrect techniques showed a resolution of 61.2% (79/129). The correct techniques of CLSC appeared to influence the outcomes. However, the age of its initiation did not substantially impact the outcomes. Significantly high resolution was noted even beyond nine months of age and encouraging results beyond 12 months of age.
It is crucial to initiate the correct techniques of Crigler’s lacrimal sac compression to achieve favourable outcomes. Age of initiation of CLSC in infancy does not appear to influence the outcomes. The resolution rate continued to be significantly high up to 1 year of age. There is a need to assess the role of CLSC beyond 12 months of age.