The management of retinoblastoma is complex. With increasing treatment modalities and increasing experience with each treatment modality, the globe salvage rates have drastically improved with time. Aqueous seeding in an eye with retinoblastoma is classified as group E based on International Classification of Intraocular Retinoblastoma, and most group E eyes were enucleated a decade earlier. Newer modalities of treatment have improved the globe salvage rates in group E eyes including those with aqueous seeding. Various globe salvage treatment modalities attempted for the management of aqueous seeds include external beam radiotherapy, plaque radiotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy, periocular chemotherapy, intravitreal chemotherapy and intracameral chemotherapy. Of all treatment modalities, intracameral chemotherapy holds promise for the management of aqueous seeds in selected patients, but it should be done with the utmost care by a trained ocular oncologist. Enucleation is still the preferred modality of treatment for eyes with advanced retinoblastoma and anterior segment invasion. This review focuses on the current evidence on aqueous seeding, highlighting the pathogenesis, classification, clinical presentation, treatment and outcomes.
Radiation-induced scleral necrosis (RISN) is a rare, but a serious complication of brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. We aimed at analysing the incidence, timing and risk factors associated with development of RISN in a large institutional series.
All consecutive cases with brachytherapy for uveal melanoma treated by the Departments of Ophthalmology and Radiotherapy at University Hospital Essen between 1999 and 2016 were eligible. Development of RISN during the post-treatment follow-up was recorded. A 1:2 propensity score matched case–control study was performed for the evaluation of the prognostic value of different tumour- and treatment-associated parameters.
RISN was documented in 115 (2.9%) of 3960 patients with uveal melanoma included in the final analysis, and occurred at the mean 30.3 months (range: 1.26–226 months) after brachytherapy. In the whole cohort, younger age (p = 0.042), plaque type (p = 0.001) and ciliary body involvement (p < 0.0001) were independently associated with the RISN occurrence. In the case–control study, multivariable weighted proportional hazard analysis discovered the association of the following additional tumour- and treatment-associated characteristics with RISN: posterior tumour margin anterior to equatorial region (p = 0.0003), extraocular tumour extension (p = <0.0001), scleral contact dose (p = <0.0001), conjunctival dehiscence after therapy (p = 0.0001), disinsertion of the superior rectus muscle (p = 0.001) and the glaucoma medication (p = 0.014).
Our study confirms RISN as a rare complication, which might occur even years later after the brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. Alongside with scleral dose five other tumour and therapy related factors predict the risk of RISN after brachytherapy for uveal melanoma were established.
Femtosecond laser-assisted excision of conjunctival melanocytic lesions: Cosmetic and long-term outcomes
Conjunctival naevi and primary acquired melanosis, when large or conspicuous, can be removed for aesthetic purposes. Surgical excision, however, may result in conjunctival erythema, scarring, neovascularization and possibly unsatisfactory cosmesis especially with large, superficial, pigmented naevi. Conjunctival scarring is also more common when Tenon’s capsule is resected along with the lesion….. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE
Survival in small choroidal melanocytic lesions with risk factors managed by initial observation until detection of tumour growth
Laura Vigués-Jorba MD, Rahul Morwani MD, Daniel Lorenzo PhD, Maria C. Baradad-Jurjo MD, Luis Arias PhD, Josep M. Piulats PhD, Cristina Gutiérrez PhD, Estefania Cobos PhD, Pere Garcia-Bru MD, Josep M. Caminal PhDRead More
The main objective was to describe metastatic and survival rates in patients with small choroidal melanocytic lesions initially managed by observation.
Retrospective, observational study of consecutive cases recruited from 2001 through 2018, followed for a median (mean, range) of 81.0 (89.3, 10-204) months in a tertiary referral centre for ocular oncology. Seventy-five consecutive patients diagnosed with small choroidal melanocytic lesions with risk factors for growth initially observed and who showed progression during follow-up. Treatment was performed (plaque radiotherapy or enucleation in 96% and 4% of cases, respectively) at detection of tumour growth.
Median (mean, range) tumour thickness was 2.2 (2.23, 1.08-3.40) mm, and median maximum basal diameter was 8.5 (8.16, 4-12) mm. At diagnosis, a median (mean, range) of 5 (5.48, 1-8) risk factors for progression were present. Lesions grew at a median (mean, range) rate of 0.42 mm/y (1.12, 0-7.68) in thickness and 1.05 mm/y (3.14, 0-4.8) in maximum diameter. Median (mean, range) time until growth was 17.00 (32.6, 1-161) months post-diagnosis, at which time tumours were treated. Five patients developed local recurrence after brachytherapy requiring enucleation. Four patients developed hepatic metastasis. Melanoma-specific survival was 98% at 5 years (95% CI, 94.2-100%) and 91.6% (95% CI, 82-100%) at 10 and 15 years.
In small melanocytic lesions with risk factors for growth, initial observation until detection of tumour growth results in a seemingly low risk of metastasis, suggesting that this may be an initial approach to consider in tumours with indeterminate malignant potential.
Secondary ocular malignancies most commonly spread to the choroid. Previously, the prognosis was poor however, with newer treatments including immunotherapy, patient’s life expectancy have increased. It is therefore, important that ophthalmologists diagnose this condition in a timely manner and offer treatment to maximize visual potential and refer them on to oncology colleagues in order to optimize their systemic treatment for their primary cancer.
No abstract available
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a debilitating, vision threatening disease that dramatically alters patients’ quality of life. Until recently, the management of TED is a long arduous course with supportive therapy, followed by an extensive surgical treatment plan to reverse the disease endpoints. Teprotumumab offers an early, safe therapeutic intervention to help reverse disease end points such as diplopia and proptosis and improve quality of life.
When making a cost‐saving it is important to ensure there is no loss of efficacy.
Clinical effectiveness and efficiency of incobotulinumtoxinA compared to onabotulinumtoxinA in facial dystonia is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate switching from onabotulinumtoxinA to incobotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of essential blepharospasm (EB), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and aberrant facial nerve regeneration (AFR).
A retrospective study of a prospective, single‐masked switchover audit from onabotulinumtoxinA to incobotulinumtoxinA.
Twenty essential EB, 12 HFS and six AFR patients.
A switchover from stable onabotulinumtoxinA to incobotulinumtoxinA using a 1:1 unit ratio and contemporaneous efficacy measures. Two nurse injectors performed the injections over a period of 6 years. Each masked patient received three onabotulinumtoxinA and three incobotulinumtoxinA over a minimum of 2 years.
Main Outcome methods
At each visit, a blepharospasm disability score (BDS), Jankovic score (JS), subjective improvement (SI), duration of maximum effect (DME) and complications were recorded. A cost comparison per unit dose was made.
Twenty EB, 12 HFS and six AFR received 114 onabotulinumtoxinA and 114 incobotulinumtoxinA treatments. Both brands had similar efficacy, but SI (P < .01) and DME (P < .05) were higher in the HFS group with incobotulinumtoxinA. Complications included bruising (two onabotulinumtoxinA, one incobotulinumtoxinA) and ptosis (three onabotulinumtoxinA, zero incobotulinumtoxinA). OnabotulinumtoxinA was 33% pricier.
Conclusion and Relevance
Switching from onabotulinumtoxinA to incobotulinumtoxinA did not result in an inferior outcome for the treatment of facial dystonia and led to a cost‐saving for the department.
Noodle‐like vascular pattern on swept‐source optical coherence tomography angiography in circumscribed choroidal haemangioma
Noel Padrón‐Pérez PhD Daniel Lorenzo PhD Luis Arias PhD José M. Caminal PhDRead More
Elizabeth M. McElnea MD FRCOphth Aoife Smyth MBBCh BAO Alice E. Dutton MBBS Justin D. Friebel FRANZCO Charles S. Su FRANZCORead More