Kalle Nummi, Tero T Kivelä
Aims To determine the incidence of retinoblastoma (Rb) and subsequent survival in the Finnish population during five decades.
Methods This retrospective observational cohort study comprised all patients with Rb born in Finland during 1964–2014 and diagnosed in 2018 (birth cohort analysis) or diagnosed in 1964–2014 (standard annual analysis), identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry and the national referral centre. We report age-adjusted incidences and survival according to cause of death.
Results Of children born in 1964–2014, 205 developed Rb, whereas 204 Rbs were diagnosed during these years; 196 belonged to both cohorts. Altogether 80 (38%) of the 213 children had heritable Rb and 19 (9%) had familial disease. The sex ratio was 1.34, suggesting male preponderance. Birth cohort analysis showed a median incidence of 6.2 per 100 000 live births (1:16 130) and less variability as compared with standard annual analysis (12.1, 6.5 and 4.4 per million children 0–4, 0–9 and 0–14 years of age, respectively). The incidence of heritable Rb increased with time, reflecting the increase in familial tumours. Five-year mortality rates from Rb were 6.2% and 7.6% for non-heritable and heritable diseases, respectively, and 35-year mortality rates from second malignancies were 0% and 14.3%, respectively. Family history predicted improved survival, whereas the period of diagnosis did not.
Conclusion The incidence of familial Rb has increased, along with improvement in survival in Finland in 1964–2014, whereas the overall incidence of Rb was stable. Long-term risk of dying of second malignancies after heritable Rb was in line with other countries.
Maria Filì, Eric Trocme, Christina Herrspiegel, Stefan Seregard, Gustav Stålhammar
Background Episcleral brachytherapy is the most common treatment for medium-sized choroidal melanomas. Although controversial, inadequate brachytherapy dose and dose rates have at least a hypothetical implication on patient survival.
Methods All patients who received ruthenium-106 or iodine-125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma at St. Erik Eye Hospital 1996 to 2016 were included (n=1238). Cox regression hazard ratios for melanoma-related mortality across deciles, quartiles and individual integers of apex radiation doses (Gy) and dose rates (Gy/hour) were calculated, adjusted for tumour size and location.
Results The average radiation dose at the tumour apex ranged from 73.0 Gy in the first decile to 108.6 Gy in the tenth. Decreasing apex dose by 1 Gy increments or by decile or quartile group was not associated with melanoma-related mortality (p>0.2) The average radiation dose rate at the tumour apex ranged from 0.5 Gy/hour in the first decile to 2.8 Gy/hour in the tenth. Similarly, decreasing apex dose rate by 1 Gy/hour increments or by decile or quartile groups was not associated with melanoma-related mortality (p>0.5).
Conclusion There are no increased hazards for choroidal melanoma-related mortality after brachytherapy with decreasing doses between 108.6 and 73.0 Gy, or with decreasing dose rates between 2.8 and 0.5 Gy/hour.
Lata Singh, Mithalesh Kumar Singh, Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Neelam Pushker, Sameer Bakhshi, Seema Sen, Seema Kashyap
Background Immune checkpoint blockade strategies have gained attention in the treatment/prognosis of cancers by targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway alone or in combination with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade and are currently in clinical trials. The present study investigated the expression of the PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, CD4 and CD8 proteins and their prognostic value in the tumour microenvironment of sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC).
Methods The expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, CD4 and CD8 proteins were assessed in 52 cases of SGC by immunohistochemistry and validated by western blotting. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the correlation of protein expression with clinicopathological parameters and disease-free survival.
Results The expression of PD-L1 was found to be higher in tumour cells than in stromal cells. In univariate analysis, the expression of PD-1 in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (tPD-1) and PD-L1 in tumour cells was associated with reduced disease-free survival, whereas PD-L1 expression in stromal lymphocyte infiltration (sPD-L1) was associated with the increased survival of patients (p<0.05). However, by multivariate analysis, the expression of tPD-1 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poor survival.
Conclusion Our study highlights the prognostic outcome of PD-1 and PD-L1 protein expression in cells of tumour–stromal compartments. These results indicate that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway mediates important interactions within the tumour microenvironment in SGC.
Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Iris Moroz, Tal Davidy, Keren Zloto, Yael Birger, Ido Didi Fabian, Guy Ben Simon, Ayelet Priel, Ofira Zloto
Introduction Naevus of Ota is a congenital condition that may involve the skin, eyeball and even intracranial structures usually in the distribution of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal cranial nerve. The purpose of this study was to summarise our experience with the ocular clinical presentation, imaging, outcome, treatment of complications and to offer a new classification of patients with naevus of Ota.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed the patients’ medical records and the following parameters were retrieved and analysed: demographics, clinical presentation complications and treatment of complications. Imaging characteristics of patients with naevus of Ota were compared with images from the same period of time of 57 age-matched and gender-matched patients without naevus of Ota (control group).
Results The series was composed of 40 patients (18 males, 22 females) whose mean age at diagnosis was 35.27 years (range 0.5–77 years). Thirty-three patients (82.5%) were type I naevus of Ota according to the Tanino classification, three patients (7.5%) were type II, one patient (2.5%) was type III and three patient (7.5%) were type IV (bilateral naevus of Ota). We further classified all cases in according to the ocular involvement extent. Three patients developed malignant transformation to choroidal melanoma and four patients developed glaucoma.
Conclusions In this study, a new clinical classification based on the involved ocular component and extent of the involvement (in quadrants) of the globe is suggested first. Further studies are needed to assess whether our clinical ocular classification can assist in identifying patients at risk for developing glaucoma and malignant transformation.