Shiu Ting Mak & Hunter Kl Yuen
At present, all parts of the world are hit hard by COVID-19. The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in the territory of Hong Kong was announced on January 23, 2020. Since then, oculoplastic surgeons in Hong Kong have been taking every measure to protect all healthcare workers and patients from contracting the disease. This paper aims to share the experiences of and measures taken by local oculoplastic surgeons in combating COVID-19. Three main aspects are discussed, namely clinical, administrative, and training and educational. We hope our experiences would provide reference to fellow oculoplastic colleagues in other parts of the world in fighting this COVID-19 pandemic.
Lauren DeMaria & Roman Shinder
Alexander Lazzaro , Charlotte Marous & Roman Shinder
Devjyoti Tripathy , Nandini Bothra & Ruchi Mittal
Farzeen Khalid Hashmi , Siddharth Ogra & Simon Madge
Complex visual hallucinations can occur in visually impaired individuals with no underlying psychiatric disorder. This phenomenon is known as Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). It is more common in elderly patients who are suffering from impaired vision due to ocular or neurological disease processes, resulting in sensory deprivation. We report a case of CBS in an elderly female with marked ptosis, which was exacerbated following a knee replacement surgery under general anaesthesia. Her CBS symptoms persisted until surgical correction of the ptosis, with a rapid and dramatic resolution of her hallucinations. Although CBS is typically a chronic condition, unusually in this case it was acute and reversible.
Roger E. Turbin , Peter J. Wawrzusin , Nicole M. Sakla , Christin M. Traba , Kristin G. Wong , Neena Mirani , Jean A. Eloy & Esther A. Nimchinsky
We review two cases of adolescents with orbital cellulitis, sinusitis and SARS- CoV-2 infection presenting to emergency departments within a 24 hour period. SARS-CoV-2 samples obtained within 24 hours were positive, supporting prior infection despite relatively limited early symptoms of COVID-19. Unusual clinical and radiographic characteristics included hemorrhagic abscess with blood of varying age in the first, intracranial epidural abscess in the second, radiographic signal consistent with hemorrhagic or thrombotic phenomena, retro-maxillary antral fat changes, and meningeal enhancement or extension in both cases. Radiographic findings thereby mimic fungal infection, although final cultures and ancillary investigation for allergic and invasive fungal disease have remained negative. These cases highlight two unusual orbital presentations of cellulitis occurring in the context of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.
Serena Fragiotta , Massimiliano Sepe , Andrea Perdicchi , Luca Scuderi , Maria Trani & Gianluca Scuderi
A 62-year-old white woman presented with a diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS). The right eye appeared enophthalmic, yet the patient complained of episodes of right proptosis on bending forward. The remainder of the examination was unremarkable. Orbital ultrasound (US) in an upright posture revealed a single low reflectivity cavity (4.27 mm x 2.82 mm) of uncertain interpretation. In a forward-leaning posture the lesion increased in size (maximum thickness of 13.72 mm), demonstrating multiple low reflectivity spaces with highly reflective septae. This case first reports the use of US with postural changes to assess the presence of orbital venous malformation in BRBNS. The expansile nature upon postural changes supports the venous origin of the orbital lesion.
Shivcharan Lal Chandravanshi
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a common variation of ectodermal dysplasia, characterized by hypohidrosis (or anhidrosis), hypotrichosis, hypodontia, and other distinct facial features. Furthermore, ocular tissues of ectodermal origin may also be affected in this disease. The most common ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are dry eye, madarosis, alterations in the meibomian glands, abnormalities in the nasolacrimal duct, and infantile glaucoma. Herein, author reports a case of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a 12-year-old Indian boy with dry eye and lacrimal sac mucocele.
Norberto Mancera , Jasmina Bajric & Curtis E. Margo
We describe an otherwise healthy 24-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of one lacrimal gland. She was found to have modest elevation of serum IgG4 and high density of IgG4+ plasma cells in her lacrimal gland, ranging from 40% to 60% of IgG+ plasma cells. The patient transiently responded to systemic corticosteroids before treatment with rituximab. IgG4-rich reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the lacrimal gland is neither an established part of IgG4-related disease spectrum nor a known precursor lesion to lymphoma. Although there is a plausible risk of transforming to IgG4-related disease or to lymphoma, the biological potential and natural history of IgG4-rich reactive lymphoid hyperplasia remains to be determined.
Ashi Morawala , Nandini Bothra , Dilip Kumar Mishra & Mohammad Javed Ali
Primary adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal drainage system is a rare malignancy. Poorly differentiated subtypes of this tumor demonstrate aggressive behaviors, and metastasis is not uncommon. We present a patient with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct with an orbital extension. The case was managed by a combined external and endoscopic approach excision followed by adjuvant radiotherapy.