Juan Valenzuela, Gabrielle A. Yeaney, Eric D. Hsi, Elizabeth M. Azzato, David M. Peereboom, Arun D. Singh
Twenty-eight patients were identified with large B-cell lymphoma of the uvea. Uveal involvement was iris (1 case), ciliary body (1 case), or choroidal in 14 cases. Panuveal involvement was observed in 12 cases. The clinical presentation could be categorized into uveitis (8), intraocular mass (9), neovascular glaucoma (4), and vascular disorders (4). The majority (21 cases, 77%) were diagnosed at autopsy (11) or after enucleation (10). Only 7 were diagnosed with conservative techniques. Histopathologically, 3 distinct subgroups of large B-cell lymphoma could be identified: 15 were characterized as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 11 as intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, and 2 as plasmablastic lymphoma. All cases had a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 14 months. Most cases (19, 67%) represented secondary uveal involvement with widespread systemic lymphoma at ophthalmic presentation. Six cases were treated with radiotherapy, most of these diagnosed before the 1990s (4). Subsequent cases (9) received systemic or local chemotherapy and adjunct radiotherapy, depending on the organs affected. Two cases were treated only with enucleation, and systemic treatment was not specified in 13 cases. Large B-cell lymphoma can rarely involve the uvea. The presenting features are nonspecific, often leading to enucleation. Effective therapy is not known. In all 3 variants, the aggressive nature and widespread involvement at ophthalmic presentation is associated with short survival.
Thonnie Rose O. See, Gustav Stålhammar, Tina Tang, Joshua S. Manusow, David R. Jordan, Jeffrey A. Nerad, Robert C. Kersten, Marc Yonkers, Nasreen A. Syed, Seymour Brownstein, Hans E. Grossniklaus
Primary ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a rare epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland. Herein we report 5 cases and review 29 published cases of PDA of the lacrimal gland. Among these 5 cases, the most common clinical presentation was painless swelling and/or proptosis of their eye. The size of the lesions ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 cm. Histopathologic examination revealed proliferations of ductal or gland-like cells with vesiculated pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Tumor cells stained positive for epithelial and apocrine differentiation markers. Immunohistochemistry for human epidermal growth factor 2 was positive in 2 of the 4 cases. Four of the five patients were alive at the last follow-up visit. One died with bone metastases, which were diagnosed 25 months after exenteration and then survived an additional 51 months. On reviewing of twenty-nine previously published cases of PDA, the mean age of diagnosis was 58 years, with a male predominance (75%). Fifteen patients (54%) had distant metastases, 1 (4%) had local recurrence, and 10 (37%) suffered from a PDA-related death. PDA is a high-grade aggressive epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland. Although rare, awareness and recognition of this malignancy are important to help determine prognosis and treatment options.
Matthew A. DelMauro, Danielle C. Kalberer, I Rand Rodgers
Mohs micrographic surgery and reconstruction is considered by many as the gold standard for treatment of cutaneous malignancies arising in the periorbital region. It has a high rate of tumor clearance and a low rate of postsurgical complications. One of the most common complications is surgical site infection. Although surgical site infection occurs in less than 3% of patients, it may result in significant morbidity. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to identifying risk factors associated with the development of a postsurgical infection. We examine the impact of endogenous factors (which determine the efficacy of a patient’s immune system), exogenous factors (which influence a patient’s exposure to bacterial pathogens), and antimicrobial interventions on the incidence of surgical site infection and propose evidence-based recommendations.
Inbal Avisar, Yoav Nahum, Michael Mimouni, Israel Kremer, Raman Malhotra
The normal structure and function of the eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctival fornices, and lacrimal system are essential for the health of the ocular surface, and abnormalities of these structures accompany many cases of ocular surface disease. We describe the role of oculoplastic intervention in the context of ocular surface disease, focusing on blink disorders, lagophthalmos, entropion, lid scarring and keratinization, trichiasis, and punctal and lacrimal sac disease.