Ravi Pandit, Liliana Paris, Danielle S Rudich, Robert L Lesser, Mark J Kupersmith, Neil R Miller
Background/Aim Fractionated conformal radiotherapy (FCRT) is now used to treat vision-threatening optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM), but long-term efficacy and safety data are lacking; the purpose of this study was to assess these key data.
Methods This is a retrospective chart review with prospective follow-up of adult patients treated with FCRT for primary ONSM at four academic medical centres between 1995 and 2007 with ≥10 years of follow-up after treatment.
Results 16 patients were identified with a mean post-treatment follow-up of 14.6 years (range: 10.5–20.7 years). The mean age at symptom onset was 47.6 years (range: 36–60 years). FCRT was performed at a mean of 2.3 years after symptom onset (range: 0.2–14.0 years). At last follow-up, visual acuity had improved or stabilised in 14 of the 16 (88%) patients, and 11 (69%) had retained or achieved ≥20/40. The mean deviation on automated perimetry remained stable (−14.5 dB pretreatment vs −12.2 dB at last follow-up; p=0.68, n=10). Two (11%) patients had persistent pain, proptosis or diplopia, compared with six (38%) pretreatment (p=0.11). Two (13%) patients developed radiation retinopathy more than 6 months after completion of therapy, one (50%) of whom had worse visual acuity compared with pretreatment. No patient developed tumour involvement or radiation damage in the fellow eye.
Conclusion FCRT stabilises or improves visual function in patients with primary ONSM and is associated with a low risk of significant ocular sequelae. This treatment should be considered instead of surgery in patients with primary ONSM who require intervention due to loss of visual sensory and/or ocular motor function.
Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields, David Arturo Ancona-Lezama, Michael D Yu, Maura Di Nicola, Basil K Williams Jr, J Antonio Lucio-Alvarez, Su Mae Ang, Sean M Maloney, R Joel Welch, Jerry A Shields
Aim To characterise combinations of multimodal imaging risk factors and predictive value for choroidal nevus transformation into melanoma.
Methods This is a retrospective review of multimodal imaging features for 3806 choroidal nevi from 1 January 2007 through 1 January 2017. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analyses were used to calculate 5-year percentages of growth to melanoma and HR.
Results Using multimodal imaging, six risk factors predictive of choroidal nevus transformation into melanoma were identified, namely tumour thickness >2 mm, subretinal fluid, symptoms of visual acuity loss to 20/50 or worse, orange pigment, hollow acoustic density and tumour largest basal diameter >5 mm. Kaplan-Meier 5-year estimated tumour growth was found in 1% of nevi with no risk factors, 11% (range 9%–37%) with one factor, 22% (12%–68%) with two factors, 34% (21%–100%) with three factors, 51% (0%–100%) with four factors and 55% (0%–100%) with five factors. HR for growth was 0.1 with no factor, 2.1–7.8 with one factor, 1.8–12.1 with two factors, 4.0–24.4 with three factors, 4.6–170.0 with four factors and 12.0–595.0 with five factors. The highest HR with each combination of two, three, four or five risk factors always included symptoms of visual acuity loss and orange pigment.
Conclusion Six risk factors for choroidal nevus transformation into melanoma by multimodal imaging have been identified. Risk for transformation into melanoma is 1% when no factors are present, and approaches 100% with specific combinations of three or more risk factors. Understanding how combinations of factors influence risk of transformation into melanoma can guide counselling and treatment decisions.
Jørgen Krohn, Pukhraj Rishi, Torbjørn Frøystein, Arun D Singh
Aims To characterise the clinical and topographical features of circumscribed choroidal haemangioma (CCH) and to visualise the patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus.
Methods Data on the size, shape and location of 113 CCH were converted into a database of two-dimensional retinal charts by means of computer drawing software. The extent of the tumours was visualised by merging the charts and displaying the number of overlapping tumours on colour-coded maps.
Results The mean largest tumour diameter was 7.2 mm (range, 2.5–11.0 mm), mean tumour height was 2.4 mm (range, 0.7–4.6 mm) and mean diameter/height ratio was 3.2 (range, 2.1–6.0). The mean distance from the posterior tumour margin to the foveola and optic disc margin was 1.7 mm (range, 0–15 mm) and 2.4 mm (range, 0–11 mm), respectively. The hemispheric location of the tumour centroid was temporal in 75 eyes (66%) and nasal in 38 (34%) (p=0.0005) and the distribution between the superior and inferior hemispheres was 68 (60%) and 45 (40%), respectively (p=0.03). The presence of subretinal fluid (SRF) was significantly associated with young age at diagnosis (p=0.0002), low tumour diameter/height ratio (p=0.0004), nasal hemisphere location (p=0.006) and close proximity to the optic disc (p=0.004).
Conclusions The superotemporal quadrant close to the macula is the most frequent location of CCH. The tumours are generally characterised by a diameter/height ratio of >2. Tumours in young patients, with marked elevation, in nasal hemisphere and in proximity to the optic disc are associated with SRF exudation.
Stephanie Ming Young, Kyung Hwan Kim, Yoon-Duck Kim, Stephanie S Lang, Ji Woong Park, Kyung In Woo, Jung-Il Lee
Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multisession gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for orbital apex venous cavernous malformation causing optic neuropathy.
Methods Retrospective cohort study in a single tertiary institution from January 2007 to December 2016 on patients who underwent multisession GKRS for orbital apex venous cavernous malformations causing optic neuropathy.
Results There were 12 patients included in our study. The mean age was 40.2±14.5 years, and men comprised 66.7% (n=8). Decrease in visual acuity (83.3%) was the most common symptom at presentation. The mean clinical follow-up was 28.5 months. Ten (83.3%) of the 12 patients had improvement in best corrected visual acuity. Of the 10 patients with pre-existing relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), 6 (60%) had complete resolution of RAPD. Of the 12 patients with visual field defect, 7 (58.3%) had complete resolution, 3 (25%) had partial improvement, while 2 (16.7%) remained unchanged due to optic atrophy from long-standing compressive optic neuropathy. Mean proptosis reduced from 2.3±1.7 mm pre-GKRS to 0.5±1.3 mm post-GKRS (p=0.005). Tumour shrinkage was observed in all patients. The mean tumour volume at the time of GKRS was 3104 mm3 (range 221–8500 mm3), which reduced to 658 mm3 (range 120–3350 mm3) at last follow-up. None of the patients experienced GKRS-related ocular morbidity during the follow-up period.
Conclusion Multisession GKRS has shown to be an effective and safe option for the treatment of orbital apex venous cavernous malformations causing optic neuropathy, with significant improvement in ophthalmic outcomes and reduction in tumour volume.
Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli, Parya Abdolalizadeh, Mitra Oghazian, Yasaman Hadi, Nasser Karimi, Mahya Ghazizadeh
Aim To report the frequency and factors affecting patients’, globe and vision survivals in rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM).
Methods This is a retrospective study of 63 patients (79 eyes) with biopsy-proven ROCM at a university hospital 2008–2016. Systemic and ophthalmic manifestations, imaging, management and final outcomes were recorded. Globe survival was defined as no exenteration and vision survival as final visual acuity of light perception and more.
Results Mean age was 55.5 (SD 12.9) years with no gender preference. Diabetes was the most common underlying disease (68.3%). Patient survival was observed in 57.1 % (36/63). Presence of frozen eye (OR 4.6), nasal mucosal involvement (OR 7.3) and shorter duration of antifungal therapy (OR 1.03) were significantly associated with lower patient survival. Exenteration did not significantly change the survival. Globe survival was detected in 43% (34/79). Higher white blood cell (WBC) count was associated with a lower globe survival (p=0.02). Vision survival was observed in 25.3% (20/79) in whom younger age was significantly associated with a worse vision survival.
Conclusion Patient, globe and vision survivals were 57%, 43% and 25%, respectively. Exenteration did not affect the patients’ survival. While frozen eye and nasal mucosal involvement were significantly associated with a lower survival, higher WBC count significantly increased the risk of exenteration.
Ronald Olaf Björn de Keizer, Genesis Kozdras, René Wubbels, Willem A Van den Bosch, Dion Paridaens
Objective To determine postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) rates in three separate patient groups who underwent orbital surgery without prophylactic systemic antibiotics.
Study design Single-centre retrospective descriptive case series.
Study population We studied the notes of 639 consecutive patients who had undergone orbital surgery in our hospital from 2009 through 2013. All patients belonged to either of three groups: (1) clean orbital surgery (n=226); (2) clean orbital surgery with implant (n=290); (3) clean-contaminated surgery (n=92). Thirty-one patients were excluded.
Results Of the total of 608 patients, without systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, only five were diagnosed with SSI 5/608 (0.82%): 1/226 in the ‘clean’ group, 3/290 in the ‘clean-with-implant’ group and 1/92 in the ‘clean-contaminated’ group. All five patients with SSI were effectively treated with antibiotics.
Conclusion In this study ‘clean’, ‘clean-with-implant’ and ‘clean-contaminated’ orbital surgery was safely performed without prophylactic antibiotics. Where postoperative infection did occur, the patients were effectively treated with systemic antibiotics. We suggest to restrict the administration of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in orbital surgery.
Martina C Herwig-Carl, Hans E Grossniklaus, Philipp L Müller, Lisa Atzrodt, Karin U Loeffler, Claudia Auw-Haedrich
Aims To systematically describe the clinical and histopathological features of a case series of conjunctival carcinomatous lesions underlying as—and also masquerading—pyogenic granuloma.
Methods Nine cases of conjunctival carcinomatous lesions underlying a pyogenic granuloma (which were clinically predominant) were retrospectively identified. Patients’ records were analysed for demographic data, clinical appearance and the postoperative course. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were routinely processed and stained with H&E and periodic acid-Schiff. Immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin were performed in selected cases.
Results All nine tumours were located in the conjunctiva (bulbar, tarsal, limbal conjunctiva) of patients between 44 and 80 years. The lesions exhibited clinical features of pyogenic granuloma which dominated the clinical appearance. Additional features comprised a papillomatous appearance of the adjacent conjunctiva, a more whitish aspect of the lesion and a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) respectively surgery for other entities. Histopathological analysis revealed a carcinomatous lesion (conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia or SCC) at the base of a classic pyogenic granuloma in all nine cases. Surgical removal (R0 resection) was performed. Three cases received adjuvant mitomycin C or interferon α2b treatment. Two lesions locally recurred within 2 years after initial presentation.
Conclusion Carcinomatous lesions may be accompanied by a pyogenic granuloma which may dominate the clinical pictures. As the tumour is usually located at the base of the lesion, a complete surgical excision followed by histopathological analysis is mandatory for each lesion appearing as conjunctival pyogenic granuloma.