Vladimir T. Thaller, Simon N. Madge, W. Chan, I. Vujic & F. Jazayeri
Direct closure (DC) of eyelid defects has been retrospectively shown to give excellent outcomes. We present prospective outcome data as further evidence to promote its wider use.
Subjects and Methods
A consecutive, unselected, series of patients undergoing eyelid tumour resection was studied prospectively. DC was attempted at the time of biopsy in all of them. If DC proved impossible, delayed reconstruction using other techniques was later performed. Defect size, pre- and post-operative palpebral aperture (PA) measurements and the final visit patients’ and surgeons’ satisfaction scores for function and appearance were recorded.
Seventy-three eyelids of 70 patients were studied. Mean resected specimen width was 16.4 mm (4–26 mm) in the DC group, versus 23.9 mm (11–42 mm) for other, non-DC reconstructions. Primary DC was achieved in 74% of this cohort. Mean final post-operative PA measurements in the DC group were 0.7 mm vertically (p = 0.003) and 0.8 mm horizontally (p = 0.009) less than preoperatively, but there was no statistical difference (p = 0.1) in the final horizontal measurements between the operated and un-operated sides in the DC group. DC satisfaction scores were excellent for both eyelid function and appearance.
DC of eyelid defects, irrespective of per-operative PA distortion, gives excellent late post-operative outcomes. We recommend that DC, aligning the closure tension parallel to the lid margin, is attempted whenever wound margin approximation is possible in preference to alternative reconstruction techniques, regardless of any temporary PA distortion and globe displacement that this may cause. Eyelid function and appearance recover to near normal within 2 months.
Qing Xia & Jianhua Yan
Orbital sparganosis represents an extremely rare condition with only a few cases being reported in literature. Here we describe cases of orbital sparganosis, including their etiology, clinical findings, and surgical outcomes.
Patients and methods
A retrospective review was performed on patients with orbital sparganosis, who were treated at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-sen University, China between 2000 and 2012.
Five patients (three males and two females, one right orbit and four left orbits) were identified. Their mean age was 14.8 years (range = 6–33 years). Four cases were contracted from eating raw snakes and fishes, or placing poultices of frog on open wounds. All cases showed a swelling and/or redness of the eyelid and conjunctiva, and a migrating inflammation was present in one of the cases. High levels of blood eosinophils were observed in three of these cases. Of the two patients examined using computed tomography, one showed a diffuse soft tissue infiltration and a punctate calcification, while one of the three patients examined using magnetic resonance imaging displayed an annular “tunnel sign” within the lesion. All patients underwent an anterior orbitotomy and the entire worm was removed with no surgical complications.
Orbital sparganosis should be highly suspected in patients with a history of eating raw snakes and frogs, a migrating orbital inflammation and the presence of eosinophilia. Orbital imaging examinations play an important role in the diagnosis of orbital sparganosis. Surgical removal of the entire worm is required.
Janice J. C. Cheung, Bita Esmaeli, Stacey C. Lam, Tracey Kwok & Hunter K. L. Yuen
To determine the practice patterns of ophthalmic plastic surgeons regarding the management of eyelid sebaceous carcinoma (SC).
An electronic survey was distributed to oculoplastic surgical colleagues in the Asia Pacific region requesting clinical information and treatment approaches to SC.
The responses from 192 respondents from the Asia Pacific region was included and analyzed in this study. For initial diagnosis, most surgeons selected incisional biopsy (55%), followed by complete excision (35%). Initial workup was mainly by palpation of lymph nodes, chest X-ray, and computerized tomography scan (CT-scan) of the orbit. Conjunctival map biopsy was done in selected cases. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was done mainly for tumors larger than 10 mm. Management was mainly by surgical excision (5 mm margin) combined with adjuvant therapy in some cases, with radiotherapy being the most common. Margin status was determined most frequently by frozen section as evaluated by the pathologist (57%) followed by Mohs micrographic surgery (18%). Surveillance was based mainly on physical examination alone.
The Asia Pacific oculoplastic surgeons prefer incisional biopsy for lesions suspicious of SC prior to definitive surgery. This is in contrast to survey results previously reported in other populations. Frozen section control (done by an oculoplastic surgeon with pathology support) is most commonly used for margin control and conjunctival map biopsies are done only in selected cases. Despite the potential benefits of SLNB, access and expertise in this area is currently lacking in the Asia Pacific region.
Laura Hope-Stone, Stephen L. Brown, Heinrich Heimann & Bertil Damato
Uveal melanomas affect 2–8 per million Europeans each year. Approximately 35%, are treated by enucleation. Proton beam radiotherapy (PBR) can be an eye-conserving alternative to enucleation for patients who wish to retain the eye. Both treatments have adverse effects, and it is difficult for clinicians and patients to make fully informed choices between them because the relative effects of enucleation and PBR on patient-reported outcomes are unknown.
We compared differential effects of enucleation and PBR on patient-reported outcomes on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire—Ophthalmological module (EORTC QLQ- OPT30) in a consecutive sample of 115 treated patients ~ 6, 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. Pre-treatment demographic variables, unrelated health problems, vision in the fellow eye, tumour characteristics and prognosis for metastatic disease were statistically controlled.
Patients treated by enucleation experienced greater functional problems at 6 months, which abated at 12 and 24 months (P = 0.020). PBR patients reported greater impairments of central and peripheral vision (P = 0.009) and reading difficulties (P = 0.002) over 24 months. Treatment modality did not influence difficulty in driving (P = 0.694), ocular irritation (P = 0.281), headaches (P = 0.640), appearance concerns (P = 0.187) or worry about recurrence (P = 0.899).
When making treatment decisions, it is important that patients and clinicians consider long-standing difficulties of visual impairment associated with PBR and temporary 6-month difficulties in activities related to depth perception associated with enucleation.