John T Lucas, Rose McGee, Catherine A Billups, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Thomas E Merchant, Rachel C Brennan, Jiangrong Wu, Matthew W Wilson
Background/aims Non-irradiative local therapies have shown promise in delaying or supplanting external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma. We hypothesised that prior focal therapy does not compromise the efficacy of delayed episcleral plaque brachytherapy (epBRT).
Methods We performed an institutional review board-approved medical record review of patients with retinoblastoma who were treated with I-125 epBRT prior to (primary) or following chemoreduction (delayed), alone and in combination with non-irradiative focal therapy. Clinical and treatment characteristics were retrieved. Treatment failure was defined as the need for subsequent EBRT and/or enucleation. Event-free and ocular survival rates were calculated from the date of plaque placement. The cumulative incidences (CIs) of treatment failure and enucleation were compared across strata using Gray’s test.
Results We identified 50 patients with retinoblastoma (54 eyes), who received a total of 56 plaques between January 1986 and December 2010, with a median follow-up of 8.3 years (range, 0.8–21.2 years). The median time from diagnosis to plaque placement was 12.7 months (range, 0.1–128 months). The CI and 95% CI of treatment failure and enucleation following epBRT at 5 years was 37%±7.2% and42.2%±7.3%, respectively. The lack of prior diode or green laser therapy was predictive of increased risk for treatment failure (p=0.02 and 0.03). International Classification group C or D was predictive of decreased time to enucleation (p=0.004). The use of any focal therapy was not predictive of time to treatment failure (p=0.33).
Conclusions The use of non-irradiative focal therapies prior to or following epBRT does not decrease the time to enucleation or treatment failure.
Lindsay A McGrath, Sachin Madhusudan Salvi, Soupramanien Sandramouli, Rina Bhatt, Kate Cuschieri, Hardeep Singh Mudhar
Purpose To present the clinical and histological features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the anophthalmic socket in four adult patients, and to determine the presence of human papillomavirus infection (HPV).
Methods Retrospective case series of four adult patients with SCC of the anophthalmic socket. P16 immunohistochemistry and HPV testing was carried out in all cases. The authors report clinical findings, histopathology, management and outcomes for all four patients with conjunctival SCC. Previously reported cases of conjunctival SCC in anophthalmic sockets were reviewed.
Results Four adult patients presented with eyelid lumps, discharge or change in prosthesis fit. Common examination findings included papillomatous changes, eyelid masses and epithelial changes. Three out of the four cases (75%) were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry and the same cases positive for HPV-16 DNA. All patients received cryotherapy, topical or intralesional chemotherapy. Two patients proceeded to exenteration for control of invasive disease.
Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the largest series of SCC in the anophthalmic socket with comprehensive annotation of HPV status. Although socket conjunctiva is protected from environmental radiation, there is still a risk of neoplastic transformation in this tissue, thus patient education and regular checking of sockets by ophthalmologists should be undertaken as a preventative measure. The potential role of HPV in these tumours warrants further investigation.
Sundas Ejaz Maqsood, Nikhil Cascone, Andre Grixti, Ruben Kannan, Charles Nduka, Raman Malhotra
Aim To report the functional and aesthetic outcomes of eyelid full-thickness skin grafting (FTSG) in patients with facial nerve palsy (FNP).
Methods This is a retrospective, non-comparative, single-centre review of all patients with FNP who underwent FTSG over an 8-year period. Functional outcomes were collected through case notes review: CADS (cornea, static asymmetry and dynamic and synkinesis) score facial nerve grading and lagophthalmos on blink, gentle and forced closure. Marginal reflex distance (MRD1 and MRD2) was calculated on standardised photographs. The aesthetic outcomes were assessed objectively by two blinded independent assessors who assessed standardised photographs based on a mutually agreed grading scale. Both functional and aesthetic outcomes were measured preoperatively, and at early (1–3 months), intermediate (3–6 months) and late (>9 months) postoperative periods.
Results A total of 28 eyelid FTSGs were performed on 21 patients (11 female, 10 male) between 2008 and 2016. The mean age was 68 (range, 16–89) years and the mean follow-up was 20.8 (range, 12–30) months. The CADS score (cornea (p<0.001), static asymmetry (p<0.001), dynamic function (p<0.001)), MRD2 (p=0.002) and lagophthalmos (blink (p=0.003), gentle (p<0.001), forced (p=0.003)) improved through early and late postoperative periods. Aesthetically, the grafts appeared to look natural in terms of colour, surface contour and graft edge from the intermediate postoperative period and continued to improve significantly by the late postoperative period.
Conclusion The use of periocular FTSG is effective in improving lagophthalmos and periorbital symmetry in patients with FNP where skin contraction exists. They should be considered as an adjunct to other oculoplastic procedures for both functional and aesthetic rehabilitation.