Jay C. Wang, Juan C. Jiménez Pérez, Alison M. Friedmann, Abner Louissaint & Suzanne K. Freitag
We report a case of myeloid sarcoma with multifocal skeletal involvement, including the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. A 23-month-old boy presented with left-sided proptosis and fevers, and was found to have an infiltrative mass involving the left sphenoid bone on orbital imaging. Full body imaging further demonstrated multiple bony lesions in the pelvis, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, bilateral femura, and left humerus, and biopsies of the humerus were consistent with myeloid sarcoma. The patient was started on a standard chemotherapy regimen and is responding well. Myeloid sarcoma presenting with proptosis due to sphenoid bone involvement with simultaneous multifocal skeletal involvement is very uncommon and highlights the importance of biopsy for establishing a definitive diagnosis.
Ramón Medel Jiménez, Juan C. Sánchez España, Luz M. Vasquez, Alejandra Tapia Bahamondes, Max Rondón, Treserra Francesc & Eva Ayala Barroso
Our objective was to describe our experience with orbital amyloidosis, and illustrate the different forms of presentation. This was a retrospective case series of four patients with biopsy-proven orbital amyloidosis, over the period from 2014 to 2016. We describe its diagnostic and clinical characteristics, management and systemic study. The series comprised three women and one man of mean age 52 ± 9.4 years. Affected sites were the lacrimal gland, tarsal conjunctiva, lacrimal sac and orbit. In three of the four patients, calcifications were observed. Three patients had associated ptosis. The patient with orbital involvement suffered an unusual vascular complication during surgery and systemic disease was detected. Management included debulking and complete resection of the lesion. In conclusion, orbital amyloidosis presents as a wide variety of forms. Its diagnosis is biopsy-based. Calcifications in biopsy specimens or images should raise suspicion of amyloidosis. It is important to always check for systemic amyloidosis.
Catherine Y. Liu, Michael G. Sun, Scott Jones & Pete Setabutr
The purpose of this article is to describe a surgical technique to repair an exposed orbital implant by posterior auricular muscle autograft. A retrospective review was conducted of four patients with an exposed orbital implant that were treated with a posterior auricular muscle graft. Four patients received posterior auricular muscle patch graft to the exposed orbital implant. The donor site healed with minimal scarring and remained well hidden. The graft incorporated fully into surrounding orbital tissue with no recurrent exposure at average of 13 month follow-up. The posterior auricular muscle autograft is a viable technique for repairing an exposed orbital implant.
Nathan W. Blessing & David T. Tse
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri, describes a disease of poorly understood pathophysiology with a specific set of signs and symptoms including potentially irreversible and blinding visual loss. Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) is a well-described surgical treatment for patients with IIH and progressive visual loss despite maximally tolerated medical therapy. A number of optic nerve access procedures have been described including medial transconjunctival, superomedial lid crease, and lateral orbitotomy with and without bone takedown. The purpose of this report is to describe a revised lateral approach for temporal optic nerve access that obviates the need to traverse through the intraconal fat of the central surgical space in the previously described lateral approach techniques.
Saul N. Rajak, Raman Malhotra & Dinesh Selva
Purpose: To describe the ‘Over-the-Top’ Modified Cutler Beard Procedure (OTTMCB) for complete upper eyelid defect reconstruction
Methods: This is retrospective case note review of four patients that underwent the OTTMCB procedure. This two-stage procedure comprises the replacement of the posterior lamella with a free tarsal graft from the contralateral upper eyelid, and the anterior lamella with a lower lid skin flap over the lower eyelid margin which is divided 2–4 weeks later.
Results: The procedure was undertaken for four patients with 75–90% upper eyelid defects from tumour excision surgery. One patient had post-operative dehiscence requiring debridement and resuturing and further reconstructive surgery 18 months later to improve the cosmesis and lagophthalmos. The other three patients had good functional and cosmetic outcomes.
Conclusions: The OTTMCB procedure replaces the anterior and posterior lamellae of the upper eyelid with ‘like-for-like’ tissues. It avoids some of the drawbacks of the original and other variations of the Cutler–Beard procedure and achieves a good cosmetic outcome.
Shani Golan & Gary J. Lelli
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the results of involutional entropion repair by combining the modified Bick strip procedure with Quickert rotational sutures.
Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive patients with involutional entropion who underwent repair by combined Bick and Quickert technique from January 2013 to December 2017 was performed.
Results: A total of 43 cases of involutional entropion repair were preformed in this time period. Fourteen eyelids of 12 patients had the combined procedure. There were no failures with a median follow-up of 29 months. Mean operative time, recorded in 10 patients, was 15 ± 2.2 minutes. Complications were minimal.
Conclusions: The combination of the modified Bick quick strip procedure and Quickert sutures requires minimal surgical dissection and provides excellent results for the treatment of involutional entropion.
Nahyoung Grace Lee, Larissa Habib, Jonathan Hall & Suzanne K. Freitag
Purpose: To report a simple, highly effective technique of simultaneous transconjunctival repair of upper and lower eyelid retraction in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED).
Methods: A retrospective interventional case review was conducted on 22 eyes of 19 TED patients. The lower eyelid was recessed with placement of a tarsoconjunctival spacer graft harvested from the upper eyelid. The upper eyelid was then recessed through the conjunctival incision used to harvest the tarsal graft. A temporary tarsorrhaphy was placed for 5–7 days. The postoperative outcome was assessed by measuring the margin reflex distance of the upper eyelid (MRD1), inferior scleral show (ISS), and lagophthalmos.
Results: The absolute change in MRD1 ranged from 0 to 5 mm with an average of 1.86 ± 1.34 mm. The absolute change in ISS ranged from 0 to 2 mm with an average of 1.3 ± 0.49 mm. One patient had postoperative lagophthalmos and 17 of 19 had improvement in their ocular surface exposure symptoms. None of the patients’ grafts were observed to undergo absorption during the postoperative course.
Conclusions: This technique of harvesting a free tarsoconjunctival graft from the upper eyelid as a posterior spacer for the lower while simultaneously recessing the upper eyelid through the same incision is an effective and durable method of correcting eyelid retraction in TED.
George Salloum, Bryant P. Carruth, Robert H. Hill III, Craig N. Czyz & Thomas A. Bersani
Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of patients who transitioned from a weight to a spring.
Methods: Case series original investigation. Five consecutive patients undergoing “enhanced” palpebral spring insertion status post gold weight insertion were identified. Outcome measures included visual acuity, lagophthalmos, margin reflex distance 1, and corneal epithelial defects. Subjective outcomes included need for eye lubrication, closure and rapid blink, and symptoms of discomfort and dryness. This study was reviewed by an accredited Institutional Review Board (IRB) and granted exempt status according to federal regulations.
Results: Mean visual acuity post weight versus spring was 20/200 (logMAR 1.0, Std Dev. −0.6) and 20/25 (logMAR 0.1, Std Dev. −0.1), respectively (p = 0.0214, CI 0.231 to 1.670). Mean lagophthalmos post weight (3.5 mm, Std Dev. −2.8) versus post spring (0.2 mm, Std Dev. −0.5). Margin reflex distance 1 improved by a mean of 1.4 mm (gold wt –0.6, Std Dev. −0.5/spring −2.0, Std Dev. −0.4) (p = 0.0016, CI −1.773 to −0.977). Superficial punctate keratopathy was present in all patients with weights and present in no patients post transition (p = 0.0079). Post transition, three of five patients rarely required lubrication and experienced a more satisfactory blink rate.
Conclusion: Patients with lagophthalmos due to cranial nerve seven palsy who have undergone gold weight placement but continue to exhibit objective and subjective corneal symptoms may have symptomatic improvement with the transition to a palpebral spring.
Saagar A. Pandit & Lora R. Dagi Glass
Purpose: To better understand the nature of periocular dermatitis (PD) patient presentation, treatment, time-to-cure, and referral pattern for allergy testing in an ophthalmic academic center.
Methods: A retrospective chart review of 344 patients diagnosed with PD between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2016 at the Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute was performed. Eighty patients were eligible for the study. The primary endpoint was the time-to-cure. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to assess if there was a significant difference between time-to-cure in patients treated with: 1) combination topical steroid/antibiotic (n = 6) vs. topical steroid alone (n = 40) and 2) combination topical steroid and oral antihistamine (n = 5) vs. topical steroid alone (n = 40).
Results: The median age of eligible patients was 57.69 years old, 66.25% of patients were female, and 41.25% had a history of atopy. Seven patients in total were referred for allergy testing. A significant difference was found in likelihood of cure when comparing combination topical steroid and oral antihistamine versus topical steroid alone, adjusting for age and gender (aHR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.40–11.25). No significance was found when comparing combination topical steroid/antibiotic versus topical steroid alone (aHR = 1.96, 95% CI: 0.72–5.27).
Conclusion: Patients treated with topical steroid and oral antihistamine were approximately 4 times more likely to experience cure in comparison to patients treated with topical steroids alone. While the majority of patients were not referred for formal allergy testing, this would likely be of benefit.
Nandini Bothra, Milind N. Naik & Mohammad Javed Ali
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in pediatric patients.
Methods: A single-center, single surgeon, retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series was performed on all pediatric patients who underwent PEnDCR between July 2014 and July 2017. Patients with associated congenital anomalies like single punctum agenesis or lacrimal fistula were excluded. Surgery was performed as per standard protocols published earlier. Data collected include demographics, clinical presentations, past interventions, indications for the surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative ostium characteristics, and anatomical and functional success.
Results: Ninety-one eyes of 83 children underwent PEnDCR during the study period. Mean age was 8.32 years and epiphora was the most common presentation (81%, 74/91). The most common indication for PEnDCR was persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction refractory to earlier interventions of probing or intubation. Postoperative ostium assessment at 4 weeks showed a well-healed ostium with a dynamic internal common opening in 86.8% of the eyes. Edge granulomas of the ostium were the most common abnormal finding in the postoperative period (9.8%, 9/91) and all except one could be managed conservatively. At 6 months follow-up, five eyes showed anatomical failure and additional two eyes showeXd functional failure. Two of anatomical failure group and one of functional failure underwent a second intervention. The final anatomical and functional success were noted in 96.7% (88/91) and 95.6% (87/91), respectively.
Conclusions: This study shows that PEnDCR is a safe surgery for pediatric populations with a high success rate of beyond 95%.