Sinha, Kunal R.; Al Shaker, Sara; Yeganeh, Amir; Moreno, Tyler; Rootman, Daniel B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore mechanical and co-innervational factors involved in both voluntary and involuntary brow elevation among people affected by ptosis and dermatochalasis.
Methods: In this prospective cohort study of normal controls and eyelids with ptosis or dermatochalasis, marginal reflex distance (MRD1) and brow height were measured under the following conditions: neutral position, involuntary mechanical brow elevation, voluntary brow elevation, and maximal eyelid opening. The primary outcome measure was change in MRD1. Secondary outcome measures included brow height and coupling (mm brow height change per mm MRD1 change). Analysis of variance and t tests were performed for intra- and intercondition comparisons, respectively.
Results: Mechanical (involuntary) brow elevation significantly raised MRD1 in control eyelids and eyelids with dermatochalasis, but not in eyelids with ptosis. Voluntary brow elevation produced significantly greater brow height than maximal eyelid opening in controls and eyelids with dermatochalasis, but not in eyelids with ptosis. Maximal eyelid opening increased MRD1 greater than voluntary brow elevation significantly in control eyelids, but not in eyelids with dermatochalasis or ptosis. Coupling of the brow and eyelid margin during maximal eyelid opening was significantly greater in eyelids with ptosis relative to controls.
Conclusions: In eyelids with ptosis, mechanical brow elevation does not change eyelid position; however, voluntary brow elevation raises eyelid position to a similar position as maximal eyelid opening. These results argue against the contention that the brow is elevated to mechanically lift the eyelid in ptosis and instead suggest that the brow elevation is driven by efforts to raise the eyelid, possibly via co-innervation.
Bokman, Christine L.; Ugradar, Shoaib; Rootman, Daniel B.
Purpose: To propose and validate a measure of medial wall bowing in thyroid eye disease (TED) and to assess the clinical correlates of bowing in TED.
Methods: In this cross-sectional cohort study, all patients affected with TED seen by a single specialist over a 2-year period were screened for study entry. Eligible participants were adults with clinical evidence of TED and either CT or MRI of the orbits. Exclusion criteria included prior history of decompression surgery and/or medical or other ophthalmic conditions that could alter the orbital anatomy. The primary outcome measure was prevalence of medial wall bowing. Secondary outcomes included the associations between medial wall bowing and exophthalmometry, diplopia, rectus muscle restriction, dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON), strabismus, and quality of life. Medial wall bowing was defined as medial divergence of the medial wall from a straight line drawn between the anterior lacrimal crest and the middle of the optic canal and measured radiographically using axial images of the orbits. Volumetric analysis of bowing was performed on a sample of orbits with and without bowing. Volumetric and axial single slice measurements were compared. Bivariate statistics were performed.
Results: The final sample included 112 orbital images from 56 patients with TED. Medial wall bowing was found to be evident in 11.6% (n = 13/112) of orbits. Medial wall bowing was significantly associated with greater Hertel measurements, horizontal and vertical muscle restriction, ocular surface symptoms and Clinical Activity Score, as well as lower quality of life scores. Patients with demonstrable medial wall bowing were more likely to be affected by optic neuropathy, diplopia (Gorman score ≥ 1), strabismus, or horizontal muscle restriction. Analysis of the volume for medial wall bowing demonstrated that the height of the arc at the peak of bowing on an axial image of a 2-dimensional CT scan correlated highly with the total volume of bowing (r = 0.90, p < 0.001).
Conclusions: The identification of medial wall bowing on CT or MRI is associated with clinical measures of disease severity, including diplopia and DON.
Bautista, Sana Ali; Wladis, Edward J.; Schultze, Robert L.
Purpose: Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection (MMCR) is a highly effective technique to correct upper eyelid ptosis. However, several authorities have raised concerns about the possibility of postoperative ocular surface dryness. This study was performed to assess the impact of MMCR on clinically meaningful parameters of the ocular surface.
Methods: In adult patients, tear break-up time, lipid layer thickness, and osmolarity were measured via direct observation, interferometry, and impedance measurements before surgery and 3 months after surgery in patients who underwent MMCR. Statistical analysis was performed via a dedicated software package.
Results: Fifteen eyes of 14 patients were included in the study. Mean pre- and postoperative tear break-up times were 12.71 ± 2.20 and 12.43 ± 2.41 seconds, respectively (p = 0.1648). Preoperatively, the mean lipid layer thickness measurement was 91.00 ± 7.02 nm, whereas the mean postoperative value was 88.86 ± 21.36 nm (p = 0.6613). The mean preoperative tear osmolarity measured 291.4 ± 8.86 mOsm/l, and the mean postoperative measurement was 289.86 ± 9.74 mOsm/l (p = 0.2652).
Conclusions: MMCR does not appear to change clinically meaningful ocular surface disease parameters, and postoperative dryness did not result from this procedure. In appropriately selected patients, MMCR can be safely performed without increased concerns regarding postoperative dry eye disease.
Vu, Priscilla Q.; Grob, Seanna R.; Tao, Jeremiah P.
A 51-year-old woman presented with no light perception vision of the right eye 12 hours after another provider injected calcium hydroxylapatite into the glabella and dorsum of the nose. Exam and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve edema and choroidal hypoperfusion consistent with ischemia of the posterior ciliary circulation. The central retinal circulation appeared intact. One thousand two hundred units of retrobulbar hyaluronidase were injected urgently in several boluses. Oral prednisone and aspirin also were administered. Ocular massage was also initiated. One day later, visual acuity improved to light perception that remained stable at 3 months. Retrobulbar hyaluronidase injection, ocular massage, prednisone, and aspirin were correlated to recovery of light perception vision in this case of calcium hydroxylapatite filler embolization to the choroidal circulation. The mechanism for the recovery of some vision and the role of hyaluronidase and other medications remain uncertain. Further research in treatments for ophthalmic complications of facial fillers is warranted.
Seen, Sophia; Young, Stephanie Ming; Teo, Shao Jin; Lang, Stephanie S.; Amrith, Shantha; Lim, Thiam-Chye; Sundar, Gangadhara
Purpose: To compare the outcomes of bioresorbable and permanent implants in the reconstruction of isolated orbital floor blowout fractures.
Methods: Retrospective series of all patients who had orbital floor fracture repair in a single tertiary trauma center from January 2005 to December 2014. The authors reviewed the case notes and CT scans of patients with orbital floor fracture repair with either bioresorbable or permanent implants. Main outcome measures were enophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular motility restriction 1.5 years after fracture repair. Implant-related complications were collected for analysis.
Results: There were a total of 88 patients in our study. Bioresorbable implants were used in 48 patients (54.5%) while 40 patients had permanent implants (45.5%). The authors analyzed the implants used in various sizes of orbital fractures: small (<13.3 mm), medium (13.3–20 mm), and large (>20 mm). One and a half years after fracture repair, both groups had comparable clinical outcomes (n = 2 and n = 0 for diplopia for permanent and bioresorbable implant groups, respectively, n = 0 for enophthalmos for both groups and n = 1 for ocular motility limitation for both groups) overall and across all fracture sizes.
Conclusion: Bioresorbable implants degrade after fracture healing through hydrolysis and promote the gradual transfer of functional forces to healing bone during its disintegration. The clinical outcomes of diplopia, enophthalmos, and ocular motility restriction associated with the use of resorbable implants are comparable to that of permanent implants for all fracture sizes. Their study shows that bioresorbable and permanent implants are equally safe and effective for the treatment of patients with isolated orbital floor blowout fractures.
Ramesh, Sathyadeepak; Eichhorn, Knut; Leibowitz, Steven; Goldberg, Robert
Purpose: To report on 2 cases of late bony regrowth with clinically apparent proptosis after deep lateral orbital decompression for thyroid orbitopathy.
Methods: A retrospective review of 2 cases identified by the authors as having late bony regrowth. The authors review the clinical, historical, radiologic, and anatomical findings and discuss the significance thereof.
Results: Bony regrowth with bowing toward the middle cranial fossa is observed at postoperative month 8 in the first case. Cortical bone and marrow was observed to regrow at 2 years postoperatively in the second case. Both patients underwent successful repeat deep lateral orbital decompression with resolution of proptosis and clinical symptoms.
Conclusions: Late bony regrowth should be considered as a possible cause of recurrent proptosis after orbital decompression in thyroid eye disease.
Zhang, Pan; Sui, Bing; Ren, Lihong; Yang, Jenny; Ma, Xu; Li, Qingchun; Yang, Daping
Purpose: Among multiple influential factors affecting facial symmetry, the role of soft tissue is often overlooked. Skin and skeletal differences between Asian and Caucasian people also require the adaptation of current techniques for Asian patients. This article aimed to explore the ability of individual facelift techniques to improve facial symmetry and reset youthful eye in Asian people, while a new method, called the grid method, was tried to evaluate the improvement in facial symmetry.
Methods: The authors conducted a review of 58 consecutive facelifts, which were all performed by a single surgeon between April 2009 and December 2016 following institutional review board approval. Among them, 21 patients underwent lower eyelid blepharoplasty. The original frontal photograph of each patient was evaluated by the grid method. Five independent plastic surgeons reviewed the facial asymmetry of the images before and after the operations using a visual analog scale to analyze the facial asymmetry of the patients.
Results: In the preoperative group evaluated by the grid, the mean facial asymmetry score was 4.11, while in the postoperative group, the mean score was 1.07, which was significantly lower than the mean score before the operation (p < 0.001). The change in mean scores illustrated that the technique was effective in improving facial symmetry in Asian people. A total of 8 patients experienced hematomas and recovered well without obvious sequelae.
Conclusions: The individual facelift technique was effective for improving facial symmetry and reshaping youthful eye in Asian people.