Huy V. Nguyen, Frederick A. Jakobiec, Fouad R. Zakka, Michael K. Yoon
Over a 2-year period, swellings of all 4 eyelid margins developed in a 32-year-old woman and was accompanied by complete loss of eyelashes. An inflammatory dermatologic condition was considered the most likely cause. A full-thickness right lower eyelid biopsy revealed a multinodular lymphoid tumor at the eyelid margin which immunophenotypically and genetically was diagnosed as an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. The mode of presentation of the disease was considered to be most unusual, as was its B cell lineage, since the majority of primary cutaneous lymphomas are of T-cell origin. Systemic workup demonstrated bilateral involvement of the external auditory canals.
Anna Marmalidou, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Reza Dana
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a conjunctival condition characterized by loose, redundant conjunctival folds, most typically in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes. Although CCH is a common cause of ocular irritation and discomfort, especially in the elderly, it is often overlooked in clinical practice. CCH may be associated with various ocular and nonocular conditions; however, the most important risk factor is aging. Although often asymptomatic, CCH may cause symptoms related to tear film instability and/or delayed tear clearance. Pathogenesis of CCH remains largely unknown but may involve different elements such as aged conjunctiva, unstable tear film, mechanical friction, ocular surface inflammation, and delayed tear clearance. Contradictory results have been reported on histopathologic changes in CCH, with some studies showing a normal microscopic structure. For symptomatic CCH, medical treatment may include lubrication and anti-inflammatory medications. For symptomatic patients who fail to respond to medical treatment, a surgical procedure may be considered. Although various surgical procedures have been used for CCH, more often, it consists of conjunctival cauterization or excision of the redundant conjunctiva, with or without amniotic membrane transplantation.
Theodora Tsirouki, Anna I. Dastiridou, Nuria Ibánez flores, Johnny Castellar Cerpa, Marilita M. Moschos, Periklis Brazitikos, Sofia Androudi
Orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammatory process that involves the tissues located posterior to the orbital septum within the bony orbit, but the term generally is used to describe infectious inflammation. It manifests with erythema and edema of the eyelids, vision loss, fever, headache, proptosis, chemosis, and diplopia. OC usually originates from sinus infection, infection of the eyelids or face, and even hematogenous spread from distant locations. OC is an uncommon condition that can affect all age groups but is more frequent in the pediatric population. Morbidity and mortality associated with the condition have declined with advances in diagnostic and therapeutic options; however, OC can still lead to serious sight- and life-threatening complications in the modern antibiotics era. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment remain crucial. Antibiotic coverage, computed tomography imaging, and surgical intervention when needed have benefitted patients and changed the disease prognosis. We review the worldwide characteristics of OC, predisposing factors, current evaluation strategies, and management of the disease.
Michael Kinori, Nickisa Hodgson, Janice Lasky Zeid
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a relatively common multisystemic inherited disease and has been extensively studied by multiple disciplines. Although genetic testing and confirmation are available, NF1 remains a clinical diagnosis. Many manifestations of NF1 involve the eye and orbit, and the ophthalmologist, therefore, plays a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of NF1 patients. Improvements in diagnostic and imaging instruments have provided new insight to study the ophthalmic manifestations of the disease. We provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the ocular and orbital manifestations of NF1.