Amy A. Mehta, Lilly H. Wagner & Nancy Blace
Paranasal sinus mucoceles are benign lesions that commonly present with orbital signs due to their anatomic proximity. We are reporting a case of bilateral frontal sinus mucocele presenting with spontaneous eyelid ecchymosis. To our knowledge this is the first case report of eyelid ecchymosis as the initial sign of this condition. In addition, our patient lacked commonly described symptoms such as diplopia or pain. This report highlights the importance of including frontal sinus mucocele in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous periorbital ecchymosis.
Larissa Habib, Jung Hoon Son, Carisa Petris & Michael Kazim
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare entity characterized by the presence of myofibroblasts and inflammatory cells within a fibrous stroma. It typically occurs in the pediatric population. The most common site of occurrence is the lung though it has been reported throughout the body. Although rare, it has been reported in the orbit. The clinical course is ill defined in the literature; here we report a case of pediatric IMT with delayed spontaneous regression.
Krisztina Emeriewen, Mandeep S. Sagoo, Michael Simpson, Yannis Athanasiadis, Judith Kingston & George M. Saleh
Aurore Aziz, Fréderic Matonti, Valentine Bautrant, Jean-Marc Foletti & Danièle Denis
F. E. Mellington, C. M. Dayan, A. J. Dickinson, J. L. Hickey, C. J. MacEwen, J. McLaren, P. Perros, G. E. Rose, J. Uddin, B. Vaidya, P. Foley, J. H. Lazarus, A. Mitchell & D. G. Ezraon behalf of The Thyroid Eye Disease Amsterdam Declaration Implementation Group (TEAMeD)
This article aims to provide baseline data and highlight any major deficiencies in the current level of care provided for adult patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). We undertook a prospective, nonrandomized cross-sectional multicenter observational study. During a 3-month period June–August 2014, consecutive adult patients with TED who presented to nominated specialist eye clinics in the United Kingdom, completed a standardized questionnaire. Main outcome measures were: demographics, time from diagnosis to referral to tertiary centre, time from referral to review in specialist eye clinic, management of thyroid dysfunction, radioiodine and provision of steroid prophylaxis, smoking, and TED classification. 91 patients (mean age 47.88 years) were included. Female-to-male ratio was 6:1. Mean time since first symptoms of TED = 27.92 (73.71) months; from first visit to any doctor with symptoms to diagnosis = 9.37 (26.03) months; from hyperthyroidism diagnosis to euthyroidism 12.45 (16.81) months. First, 13% had received radioiodine. All those with active TED received prophylactic steroids. Seven patients who received radioiodine and did not have TED at the time went on to develop it. Then, 60% patients were current or ex-smokers. 63% current smokers had been offered smoking cessation advice. 65% patients had active TED; 4% had sight-threatening TED. A large proportion of patients (54%) were unaware of their thyroid status. Not enough patients are being provided with smoking cessation advice and information on the impact of smoking on TED and control of thyroid function.
Mamta Shah, Lucy Sun, Solly Elmann, Ivan Vrcek, Ronald Mancini, Hee Joon Kim, Jacqueline Carrasco & Roman Shinder
We report the clinical presentation, radiography, and management outcomes of autoenucleations (AE). Charts of 7 patients evaluated at 4 institutions with AE were reviewed. Four males and three females had a mean age of 50 years (range 26–72 years). The etiologies were psychosis secondary to underlying mental illness (6, 88%) and substance use (1, 12%), and the mechanism was largely blunt digital injury (6, 88%). Three (43%) AE patients suffered bilateral enucleations. Common concomitant injuries included eyelid lacerations (5, 71%) and optic nerve avulsion (3, 43%). Radiography was utilized for all of the study patients with computed tomography as the most common (5, 71%), followed by ultrasound (1, 14%), and magnetic resonance imaging with CT angiography (1, 14). Orbital exploration was performed in the management of all patients. Orbital implants were placed in 4 (57%) patients. Patients were followed for a mean of 1.9 months (range 1–4 months). Autoenucleation affects both genders and is commonly associated with eyelid lacerations, optic nerve avulsion, and intracranial hemorrhage. The association with intracranial hemorrhage is consistent with prior reports of internal carotid artery injury following shearing of the optic nerve. Autoenucleation cases were seen secondary to mental or substance induced psychosis, and these patients may be at risk for future injuries such as AE of the contralateral globe. The common causes for psychosis reported our patient group include schizophrenia, depression, schizoaffective disorder, and methamphetamine-induced psychosis, which corroborates with similar cases in the literature. Two of three cases of bilateral AE suffered sequential AE where the contralateral globe was enucleated days apart. All patients suffering AE should have full medical, psychiatric, neurologic, and radiologic evaluation and monitoring while under care. When evaluating patients with obvious ocular injury, accompanying intracranial injuries should be ruled out in a timely fashion before pursuing surgical intervention.
Hollie S. Richards, Elizabeth Jenkinson, Nicola Rumsey & Richard A. Harrad
This qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of patients who had undergone successful ptosis correction surgery. Participants were recruited from Bristol Eye Hospital. Nine participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and open ended questions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four major themes were identified from patient accounts. Patients described the psychosocial and functional difficulties they experienced living with ptosis, and the subsequent benefits of surgery. Patients reported experiencing appearance related anxiety pre-operatively due to their condition and engaging in behaviours to avoid social encounters. Gender differences were noted in the internalization of perceived negative reactions from others, with men describing fewer adverse impacts. Patients described perceived barriers to seeking surgery including a lack of awareness of ptosis as a treatable condition, the perception that being concerned with their appearance could be seen as vain and the view that ptosis surgery is synonymous with cosmetic surgery. Following successful surgery patients outlined positive impacts on their vision, appearance and psychosocial well-being after successful surgery. This qualitative study highlights the complexities of the factors and processes contributing to the psychosocial impacts of ptosis and the potential benefits of surgery and/or psychosocial support. An increased awareness amongst people with ptosis of the potential positive impacts of surgery and an enhanced understanding of the reasons why patients may not seek treatment amongst health care professionals are likely to benefit this often overlooked patient group.
Lee Teak Tan , Christopher M. Stewart, Fintan Sheerin, Brendan MacDonald, Priy Silva & Jonathan H. Norris
Primary intraorbital ectopic meningiomas are rare and their existence remains controversial. We present a 30-year-old female with painless, non-axial proptosis and a palpable superomedial mass. The MRI demonstrated that the mass had no optic nerve sheath or sphenoid wing involvement and was initially reported to have no intracranial extension. The patient was initially thought to have an ectopic orbital meningioma. Subsequent multidisciplinary team (MDT) consultation and further specialist review of the MRI revealed a subtle dural tail connecting to an enhancing mass in the olfactory groove. Biopsy revealed a WHO Grade 1 transitional meningioma with an infiltrative pattern. We argue that some previously reported cases of ectopic meningioma may lack the requisite imaging to discover the primary disease. Our report highlights the importance of MRI in this group of patients and the role of a skull-base MDT with specialist neuroradiology input to determine the true origin and extent of these extradural orbital meningiomas.
Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh & Milind N. Naik
The aim of this study was to illustrate the surgical techniques and utility of stereotactic or image-guided navigation in the management of lacrimal drainage obstruction in congenital arhinia-microphtalmia syndrome and review the relevant literature. Image-guided combined external and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed in a female, aged 16 years with congenital partial arhinia and ipsilateral microphthalmus. The lacrimal sac was bypassed to the contra lateral nasal cavity through a septal window. The surgical procedure was performed using the intra-operative optical image-guided Nav 1 PicoTM ENT navigation system with real-time intra-operative instrument geometry. Different phases of the surgical technique, adjunctive endoscopic procedures, intra-operative anatomical guidance, and utility at crucial phases of surgery were noted. A review of the literature was performed pertinent to arhinia and navigation guided lacrimal surgeries. Lacrimal bypass into the contra lateral nasal cavity even through a malformed septum is possible in partial arhinia syndromes. Detailed preoperative evaluation including 3D imaging studies, navigation guided planning of risk structures with intra-operative distance control and construction of meticulous surgical roadmaps were found to be essential factors in successful outcomes. At six months follow up after surgery, there was a complete and contiguous healed mucosal anastomosis with lacrimal system patent on irrigation and resolution of epiphora. Combined external and endoscopic approach is useful in partial arhinia syndromes. Image guidance is a very useful adjunctive tool that facilitates safe and precise surgery in the management of such complex lacrimal surgeries.