Pavindran Gounder, Minh Lam, Carl Vinciullo & Jean-Louis de Sousa
A 68-year-old gentleman presented with a lesion that resembled a pyogenic granuloma in his inferior fornix. The lesion was excised and biopsy demonstrated a proliferation of malignant spindle cells. Three weeks following initial excision, the lesion recurred and was removed via wedge excision of the eyelid. Definitive clearance was achieved through Mohs micrographic surgery. The patient received adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy and remains disease-free. This case demonstrates the need to consider sinister pathology in the setting of recurrent periocular lesions.
Alexander J. Brent, Peter M. Mota, Gerald Saldanha, Ram Vaidhyanath & Raghavan Sampath
A 49-year-old male presented with a 4 month history of dysaesthesia in the left periorbital region. A CT scan showed a lacrimal gland mass with areas of dense calcification. Biopsies of the left lacrimal gland revealed a silver material with associated chronic granulomatous inflammation and secondary calcification. The histological specimen was sent for X-ray microanalysis. This confirmed the silver material to be aluminium. The metal fragments were subsequently discovered to be from a car aerial, which caused an orbital impaling injury 20 years prior to presentation. This is the first reported case of lacrimal gland calcification secondary to chronic metal foreign body exposure. The case is presented alongside literature reviews of lacrimal gland calcification and associated radiological findings.
Marì Regoli & Eugenio Bertelli
Orbits are connected with the middle cranial fossa via the optic canal, the superior orbital fissure, the M-type orbitomeningeal foramen, the metoptic canal, an accessory anterior opening of the foramen rotundum, and Warwick’s canal. They are also in communication with the anterior cranial fossa via the ethmoidal canals and the A-type orbitomeningeal foramen. The anatomy of these conduits has been recently enriched with several details that are summarized and reviewed in this article.
Chris Y. Wu & Alon Kahana
Geriatric patients (age ≥ 65) are prone to complications after surgery and are at risk for severe thyroid eye disease (TED). In this study, we aim to identify preoperative demographic and TED patterns associated with geriatric patients who underwent decompression surgery, to examine the effect of age on postoperative strabismus rates, and to identify factors that may contribute to postoperative strabismus in the geriatric subgroup. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent thyroid-related orbital decompression surgery at the Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, between 1999 and 2014. Primary outcome was postoperative strabismus requiring palliation with prisms and/or strabismus surgery. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to define association of geriatric age with postoperative strabismus and determine predictors of postoperative strabismus. Of 241 patients, 41 (17.0%) were geriatric. They were less likely to undergo bilateral decompression (P = 0.012), less likely to be current smokers at time of decompression (P = 0.002), and more likely to have preoperative primary gaze diplopia (P = 0.001). Postoperative strabismus rates for geriatric patients (≥ 65 years of age), ages 50–65, 30–50, and < 30, were 73.2%, 41.3%, 31.9%, and 15.8%, respectively (P = 0.002). On multivariable analysis, geriatric age remained an independent risk factor for postoperative strabismus when compared to each age group (P ≤ 0.001). Among geriatric patients in subgroup multivariable analysis, balanced as opposed to lateral wall decompression (P = 0.038) and shorter TED duration (P = 0.031) were independently predictive of postoperative strabismus.
Wendy Meihua Wong, Stephanie Ming Young & Shantha Amrith
This article desribes the ophthalmic involvement in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) pre- and post-treatment. We retrospectively reviewed data for 354 consecutive patients diagnosed with or treated for NPC at a single tertiary centre between April 2007 and July 2015. We identified 27 (7.6%) patients with ophthalmic involvement due to NPC or its treatment. Symptomatic orbital invasion by tumor occurred in 13 of 27 patients (48.1%). The mean age of diagnosis in these patients was 54 years, and 8 (61.5%) had no prior diagnosis of NPC. Ocular signs, but no orbital invasion, was present in 8 patients (29.6%). Incidental orbital involvement was detected on imaging in 2 patients (7.4%). Radiotherapy-related ocular complications affected 4 patients (14.8%). Ophthalmic symptoms from orbital invasion can be the initial presentation of NPC. This disease tends to affect a younger group of patients and early recognition is important to minimize morbidity and mortality.
Daniele Lorenzano, Katherine Miszkiel & Geoffrey E. Rose
We describe a 32-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our clinic after 6 weeks of observation elsewhere with a rapidly expanding orbital mass, proptosed globe and slowly decreasing of vision in her left eye. To our examination the patient presented with congested optic disc fine macular striae and some slight choroidal elevation without any retinal pigmentation. An MRI scan without contrast was performed, suggesting the signal charactheristics of an orbital mass consistent with a cellular lesion such as a cavernous hemangioma or a solitary fibrous tumour. Despite the benign-looking imaging, the fast-growing pattern of the lesion suggested a more sinister picture. A fine needle aspiration of the orbital mass was carried out, revealing the presence of an amelanotic melanoma. This case highlights the importance of considering the presence of a melanoma when there is a clear history of a rapid lesion progression.
Phillip A. Tenzel, Kapil Mishra, Aleza Andron, Robert C. Della Rocca & Harsha S. Reddy
Plasmacytoma is an uncommon presentation of plasma cell malignancy, especially in the absence of multiple myeloma. Orbital plasmacytomas generally originate from bone, although few cases in the literature report orbital extramedullary plasmacytomas. We present the case of a 68-year-old man found to have a solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in the lateral rectus muscle without further evidence of multiple myeloma. This case demonstrates a rare presentation for such a malignancy, and a review of the literature highlights the importance of proper workup and close monitoring to rule out multiple myeloma to guide management.
Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Ganesh Kuri, Manpreet Singh & Manab Jyoti Barman
We describe the techniques and outcome of three different approaches to transfer the posterior 2/3rd temporalis muscle pedicle flap for orbital socket reconstruction following total orbital exenteration. A retrospective interventional series of 9 patients operated between February of 2000 and 2006. We describe three different techniques, namely supraorbital, transorbital and transorbitectomy approach. All patients were followed for minimum of 3 years and muscle trophism with periorbital contour was clinically studied for outcome. There were 6 males and 3 females with a mean age of 42 years. Three patients each underwent the three mentioned approaches of socket reconstruction following total orbital exenteration performed mainly for oculo-adenexal malignancies with orbital extension (77.78%). Intraoperative, tumor-free histopathological margins were ensured. Postoperatively, bulky lateral orbital rim was noticed in all 3 patients of supraorbital approach, while progressive temporalis flap atrophy was noticed in all with transorbital approach over a period of 6 months. No such complications were observed in transorbitectomy approach and reasonably good periorbital cosmetic appearance with optimum preservation of muscle trophism was obtained. The mean follow-up period was 7 years. Temporalis muscle flap provides adequate orbital volume restoration in an exenterated socket. It also helps in better skin graft uptake, socket health and appearance. The transorbitectomy approach appeared as a reliable one stage surgical technique with reasonably acceptable anatomical and cosmetic outcome over a long-term follow-up. The choice of posterior portion of temporalis muscle as a flap offers satisfactory temporal fossa appearance.
Deepa Rathore, Mohamed N. Mohyudin, Purnima Mehta & Harpreet S. Ahluwalia
Purpose: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon skin tumour occurring primarily in the head and neck. It has rarely been reported in the periocular region. We report a rare case of atypical fibroxanthoma of the medial canthus.
Methods: Clinical and histological findings and management of this case are presented.Results: A 90-year-old Caucasian female had primary excision of a medial canthal mass, which was clinically suspected as basal cell carcinoma by our Plastic surgery colleagues. Histology revealed an atypical fibroxanthoma with incomplete excision, with the tumour involving the deep and peripheral resection margins. Within a few weeks she developed a recurrent mass, which was clinically fixed to deep tissues. She was referred to the Oculoplastic service where she underwent a two-stage excision and reconstruction of the right medial canthus with a full thickness skin graft from her arm. Paraffin fixed sections were used to ensure margin clearance.
Conclusion: This case emphasises the importance of a diagnostic biopsy. A panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis of AFX and distinguish it from malignant fibrohistiocytoma and non-keratin expressing squamous cell carcinoma. It usually follows a benign course, but can occasionally demonstrate aggressive local recurrence as well as distant metastasis. Invasion beyond the dermis and a rapid rate of recurrence are suggestive of a more aggressive clinical course. Paraffin fixed sections are preferred over frozen section techniques for this tumour. Medial canthal AFX has not been reported previously.