Hamad M. Alsulaiman , Dalal R. Fatani , Osama Al Sheikh , Sahar Elkhamary , Azza Maktabi , Hind M. Alkatan & Silvana Artioli Schellini
The authors are describing two rare cases of dacryops involving the Krause accessory lacrimal glands and affecting the orbit. In both cases, the lesion was located in the inferior fornix, with no preceding trauma, surgery or trachomatous conjunctival scarring. The first case involved a clear orbital extension with evidence of optic nerve compression. The second case extended from the anterior orbit to the limbus. Both had surgical removal with good outcome. As Krause gland dacryops are similar to other orbital cysts, clinical, imaging and histopathologic evaluation are essential to confirm the final diagnosis.
Sung Eun Kim , Ji Hyun Kim & Suk-Woo Yang
A liposarcoma of the orbit is extremely rare and a metastatic liposarcoma of the orbit is even rarer. Histologically, metastatic tumors frequently resemble the appearance of the primary lesion or may be less differentiated. In the present paper, we report on a case of a metastatic liposarcoma of the orbit and brain in which dedifferentiated transformation occurred from the primary tumor. The primary liposarcoma was a myxoid liposarcoma in the thigh, which had been resected 6 years ago. The metastatic orbital liposarcoma was poorly differentiated compared to the primary tumor and the tumor in the brain was even more poorly differentiated and anaplastic than the tumor in orbit. The tumor in the orbit and brain was completely removed and postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed.
Albert Wu , David S Curragh , Rebecca Morrow , Dinesh Selva & Garry Davis
Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is the third most common eyelid malignancy in Australia, and is potentially fatal. It usually presents as a nodule or diffuse eyelid thickening, and is commonly misdiagnosed. We describe a case of SC with lacrimal sac involvement, presenting with clinical features of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. At the time of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), nasal endoscopy revealed a polypoid mass of the opened lacrimal sac. Biopsy of the mass showed poorly differentiated SC. The lacrimal drainage apparatus was later excised via a combined external and endoscopic approach. Conjunctival map biopsies showed extensive intraepithelial disease, which was treated with topical mitomycin C. At three-month follow-up, there was no evidence of residual disease on nasal endoscopy or repeat conjunctival biopsy.
Rukaiya Malik , James English & Thomas G. Hardy
Conjunctival orbital cysts are rare; they are typically either conjunctival dermoid or conjunctival epithelial cysts – congenital or acquired (inclusion). We describe the case of a 15-month-old girl presenting with strabismus and proptosis who had a retrobulbar intraconal cystic lesion displacing the optic nerve, with an adjacent middle cranial fossa anomaly. Aspiration of the orbital cyst tested positive for asialotransferrin, raising the suspicion of a direct communication with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Subsequent fine cut CT scanning disproved any connection with the intracranial space, and the cyst was excised complete and intact. Histopathology showed a conjunctival epithelial cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature of an asialotransferrin positive pediatric orbital conjunctival epithelial cyst. It is of clinical relevance as it explores the possibility of either a false positive asialotransferrin or potentially a prior developmental communication with the subarachnoid space. These two diagnostic possibilities are discussed.
Sruti S. Akella , Jinesh Shah & Anne Barmettler
Sinus pericranii (SP) is a rare malformation involving aberrant connections between the dural venous sinuses and extracranial veins. Classically considered congenital pathology, there are reported instances of post-traumatic SP in adults. Very rarely, the upper eyelid is involved and the resulting ptosis can obstruct the visual axis. In these cases, surgical removal may be warranted. Because of the high risk of massive intraoperative hemorrhage, careful preoperative identification and diagnostic workup is essential. The authors report a patient with new onset, asymmetric eyelid ptosis referred for evaluation, and subsequently diagnosed with SP. Through a multi-disciplinary assessment, deferring surgical intervention was determined to be appropriate management. The lesion was monitored clinically, and at 6 months follow-up, there were no noted adverse outcomes.
Atanu Barh , Bipasha Mukherjee , Kirthi Koka & Subramanian Krishnakumar
A triton tumor is a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with rhabdomyomatous differentiation These tumors account for 5% of MPNSTs and have an extremely poor prognosis. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a history of painful, progressive protrusion of her right eye with a diminution of vision for the past five years. She had been diagnosed as having an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the right orbit, and she had undergone surgical debulking followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite undergoing multiple modalities of treatment, she had several recurrences prior to this consultation. We reviewed her histology slides. HPE features were consistent with a malignant triton tumor with cartilage and osseous differentiation. Immunohistochemistry was done to confirm the diagnosis. In view of the aggressive nature of the tumor with multiple recurrences; she was advised palliative radical excision to reduce the tumor burden.
Aric Vaidya , Tushar Sarbajna , Hirohiko Kakizaki & Yasuhiro Takahashi
A 35-year-old woman complained of an unpleasant odor for a few days after a change in foundation cream. The patient had previously undergone conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy with a Jones tube fixed with non-absorbable suture. Slit-lamp examination revealed an orange-colored discharge in the tube. A culture test of the discharge showed Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (1+), Aspergillus versicolor (1+), and Mycobacterium chelonae (1+). After medical treatment and suture removal, the discharge completely disappeared. This is the first reported case of a Jones tube infection following conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy with multiple microorganisms, including C. kroppenstedtii.
Edward J. Wladis , Hirah Khan & Valerie H. Chen
To compare the outcomes of patients with and without a history of dacryocystitis that undergo dacryocystorhinostomy without systemic intra- and post-operative antibiotics.
A retrospective review was performed to identify all cases of patients that received surgery under this paradigm and had at least three months of follow up care. Key demographic and outcome data were captured, and a statistical analysis was performed via a dedicated software package (Microsoft Excel, Redmond, WA).
For the study period, 83 patients without and 69 patients with a history of dacryocystitis were identified, and the two groups were not statistically significantly different in age, gender, or postoperative follow up duration (mean = 6.4 months for patients without and 6.3 months for those with dacryocystitis, respectively). No patient developed a postoperative infection or a recurrence of dacryocystitis during the follow up period.
While many surgeons routinely use systemic antibiotics in patients with a history of dacryocystitis who undergo dacryocystorhinostomy, these agents may not be necessary. As a result, patients may be able to avoid the complications and side effects inherent to systemic antibiotics. Large-scale, prospective studies will likely help to further clarify this issue.
Nandini Bothra , Abhimanyu Sharma , Oshin Bansal & Mohammad Javed Ali
To describe the outcomes of punctal dilatation and non-incisional canalicular curettage in patients with infectious canaliculitis.
A retrospective analysis of 53 canaliculi of 47 eyes of 46 consecutive patients diagnosed with canaliculitis was performed from November 2015 to December 2018. All patients were treated with punctal dilatation and a non-incisional canalicular curettage. Parameters studied include demographics, clinical presentation, microbiological analysis, management and treatment outcomes. The outcome measures were clinical resolution of canaliculitis and resolution of epiphora.
The mean age at presentation was 59.34 years with female preponderance (M:F = 19:28). Left eye was more affected (64%, n = 30) as compared to the right (36%, n = 17). Only one patient presented bilaterally. Lower canaliculus was most commonly involved (68%, n = 32). Six eyes showed involvement of both upper and lower canaliculus. Presenting symptoms include discharge (81%), swelling of the eyelids (64%), watering (55%), redness (51%) and pain (39%). Punctal dilatation and non-incisional canalicular curettage were performed using punctum dilator and a small chalazion scoop (1 mm Meyhoefer chalazion curette). Of the 53 involved canaliculi, 14 canaliculi of 14 eyes underwent a repeat curettage for complete resolution and 1 canaliculus underwent the same procedure thrice. The most common micro-organisms isolated were Streptococci species (28% cases). At a mean follow-up of 6.8 months, resolution of canaliculitis was achieved in all patients; however, epiphora persisted in two eyes (4%).
Non-incisional canalicular curettage is a minimally invasive technique with good preservation of the punctal and canalicular anatomy. It also facilitates good anatomical and functional outcomes in infectious canaliculitis
Zuzana Sipkova , Ebube E. Obi , Oyinka Olurin , Peter M. Mota , Oana Vonica & Andrew R. Pearson
Assessment of lacrimal resistance in patients with patent lacrimal systems is important in determining whether dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery is appropriate. Current techniques, including lacrimal syringing and dacryoscintigraphy (DSG), can be unreliable. We compare the results of a manometric tear duct test (mTDT) irrigation technique with DSG in these patients.
All symptomatic patients in a specialist lacrimal clinic had full work-up apart from syringing. Lacrimal resistance was assessed using mTDT which applies a fixed head of fluid pressure via a cannula sealed to punctum. Conventional syringing was also performed in cases with abnormal mTDT. Symptomatic patients with delayed tear clearance, no external cause for watering and patent lacrimal systems had DSG. MTDT and DSG results were compared, including in asymptomatic fellow eyes.
105 tear ducts were examined, 85 symptomatic. Symptomatic eyes had a significantly higher mean mTDT resistance (p = .0003) and more had abnormal mTDT (52%) compared to asymptomatic eyes (10%). Although mean tear duct resistance was higher in those with nasolacrimal duct stenosis (NLDS) than freely patent (FP) on syringing (8.5 vs 10.8 dpm), this was not significant (p = .6). High proportions of both FP and NLDS groups had no flow at all on mTDT (60% and 53%, respectively). DSG showed no significant difference in the symptomatic versus asymptomatic eyes (p = .36), nor between those with a normal or abnormal mTDT (p = .25), nor between FP and NLDS groups (p = .25).
In contrast to DSG, the mTDT provides valuable, objective information on lacrimal resistance that can guide a decision to DCR surgery.