Yue Zeng, Chunhong Hu, Long Shu, Yue Pan BS, Lishu Zhao, Xingxiang Pu, Fang Wu
Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is an ocular malignant tumor arising from the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and from the caruncle. The treatment of early-stage CM is wide local excision, followed by cryotherapy to the margins and adjuvant therapy postoperatively. Advanced CM has a poor prognosis, and there is no consensus on its management. With the development of precision medicine, the identification of genetic alterations assumes great importance. The genetic characteristics of CM, such as BRAF, NRAS, and NF1 mutations, may provide potential therapeutic targets. For locally advanced tumors and metastatic disease, targeted therapy such as BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors in vitro show therapeutic benefit. Some individual case reports indicate their potential effectiveness in advanced CM. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors, have been successfully used for advanced cutaneous melanoma and may be effective in CM. Limited clinical case reports found immune checkpoint inhibitors effective in advanced CM. More clinical studies are needed.
Jonathan E. Lu, Margaret L. Pfeiffer & Michael A. Burnstine
Purpose: To provide outcome data for transantral orbital decompression for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation for exophthalmos in stable thyroid eye disease (TED).
Methods: Retrospective, non-comparative chart review of consecutive TED patients who underwent primary-graded transantral orbital decompression for exophthalmos by a single surgeon (MAB) between 2005 and 2018. Additional inclusion criteria included follow-up >90 days and no prior orbital surgery. Outcome data collection included millimeters of proptosis reduction, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction.
Results: A total 30 patients (47 orbits) were included. Average reduction in proptosis: 2.8 mm (range 0–9 mm, median 2.5 mm). Post-operatively, new onset diplopia occurred in four patients, V2 numbness in 15 patients (17 orbits), and sinusitis in 2 patients (2 orbits). Phone surveys reached 9/30 patients (14 orbits): cosmetic improvement was reported in 14/14 orbits, relief of orbital ache reported in 10/10 orbits with pre-operative ache, relief of dry eye in 8/13 orbits with preoperative dry eye, and overall satisfaction score: 8.9/10 (range 4–10, median 10).
Conclusions: Graded transantral orbital decompression is a viable option for stable TED patients with orbital ache, exophthalmos, and exposure keratopathy, resulting in a high degree of functional and cosmetic satisfaction in our cohort.
Ann Q. Tran, Sandy X. Zhang-Nunes, Kenneth Cahill, Chrisfouad R. Alabiad, Erin M. Shriver, Tiffany Ho, David A. Weinberg, Steven M. Couch, Dianne M. Schlachter, John Nguyen & Sara T. Wester
Purpose: To determine the clinical course of patients with chorioretinal folds (CRF) in thyroid eye disease (TED).
Methods: A multi-center retrospective case series of patients with TED who developed CRF.
Results: Ten patients (17 eyes) with CRF related to TED were identified. The mean age of presentation was 59.3 ± 8.3 years old. The majority of patients were male (70%), hyperthyroid (70%), hyperopic (53%), had a history of radioactive iodine (60%), and currently on methimazole treatment (30%). Three patients (3 eyes) had unilateral involvement of CRF with bilateral TED. The average clinical activity score was 3.6 ± 2.1 at the time of presentation. The most commonly enlarged extraocular muscles were medial (76%), inferior (64%), superior (64%) and lateral rectus (35%). Compressive optic neuropathy was seen in 47% of eyes. Treatment included oral prednisone (70%), orbital decompression (59%), thyroidectomy (20%) and tocilizumab (10%). The CRF did not resolve over a follow up period of 24.7 ± 23.7 months in 70% of eyes. There was no significant difference in average axial length (25.7 ± 4.9 mm) and optic nerve to optic strut distance (37.8 ± 3.9 mm) between patients with CRF and the eight age-and sex-matched TED control patients without CRF (p = 0.81 and 0.65 respectively). A univariable and multivariable analysis found an enlarged inferior rectus as a factor in TED patients with persistent CRF.
Conclusions: CRF are often an indicator of visually threatening situations and often do not resolve despite treatment of TED.
Xiaodong Zheng, Hiroko Yamada, Arisa Mitani, Atsushi Shiraishi, Tomoyuki Kamao & Tomoko Goto
Purpose: To study the changes of the visual function and ocular and systemic symptoms following blepharoptosis surgery.Methods: Seventy-eight involutional blepharoptosis patients (72.1 ± 6.4 years) underwent levator advancement procedure. Before and at 2 months after the surgery, OPD-Scan III (Nidek) was used to measure corneal astigmatism, total higher order aberrations (HOAs), and area ratio (AR), an index of the objective contrast sensitivity. FVA-100 (Nidek) was used to determine the functional visual acuity (FVA) and visual maintenance ratio (VMR). The ocular and systemic symptoms were also determined by a questionnaire using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores.Results: Before surgery, the corneal astigmatism, HOAs, AR, FVA, and VMR were 1.56 ± 0.52 diopters (D), 0.23 ± 0.24 µm, 14.8 ± 4.2%, 0.68 ± 0.32 logMAR units and 0.76 ± 0.06, respectively. After surgery, these values were 1.29 ± 0.41 D, 0.19 ± 0.21 µm, 18.6 ± 3.4%, 0.31 ± 0.18 logMAR units and 0.88 ± 0.03, respectively. Corneal astigmatism and HOAs were significantly reduced after surgery (P=0.007 and P=0.023, paired t test, respectively), and AR, FVA and VMR were significantly improved after surgery (P=0.033, P=0.012 and P=0.016, respectively). The VAS scores significantly improved after surgery, and this improvement was positively and significantly correlated with the increase of the AR (r=0.421, P=0.003) and the VMR (r=0.497, P =0.005).Conclusions: Blepharoptosis surgery is visual functionally beneficial and can help to reduce the ocular and systemic symptoms.
Nitika Pandey & Apjit Kaur Chhabra
Purpose: The study evaluates the corneal biomechanical properties on Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and aims to establish their correlation with the clinical profile of patients with TAO.
Methods: A tertiary care centre-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted. Eighty patients with stage I and II TAO (EUGOGO classification), categorized as group A, were age and sex matched with 85 controls constituting group B. The disease activity was assessed using clinical activity score (CAS). The thyroid hormonal profile of within one-week duration was recorded for each patient of group A. Mean IOP-GAT (IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometer), IOPg (Goldmann-correlated IOP value), IOPcc (cornea-compensated IOP value), CRF (corneal resistance factor), and mean corneal hysteresis (CH) of group A and B were compared. The variation of CH with disease severity, activity, and thyroid status in group A was evaluated.
Results: Mean GAT, IOPg, and IOPcc of group A were significantly higher than that of group B (p < .001). Mean CH of group A i.e the visco-elastic dampening ability of cornea was significantly lower than that of group B (p < .001). In group A, mean CH of patients with stage 1 disease severity and CAS<3 was significantly higher than that of patients with stage 2 severity and CAS≥3 (p < .001). CH of hyperthyroid patients was significantly lower than CH of hypothyroid patients (p < .01).
Conclusion: TAO affects the biomechanical properties of the globe as reflected by the corneal biomechanics on ORA. The disease severity, activity, and hyperthyroid status are negatively correlated with the CH.
Ahmed Sheikh & Rand Rodgers
We describe a 75-year-old woman with rapid onset orbital inflammatory syndrome as her initial manifestation of relapsing polychondritis. Patient presented after the development of right eyelid swelling, erythema, and proptosis over a 48-hour period. Visual acuity was 20/30 in both eyes. Intraocular pressure was elevated in her right eye along with severe restriction of extraocular motility. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed thickened right medial and inferior recti muscles. Serologic laboratory data was unrevealing. Patient demonstrated marked improvement within 12 hours of administration of intravenous corticosteroids. She was symptom-free after 1 week. A diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis was confirmed 3 weeks later after new onset complaints of right ear pain and a rash.
C. Pham, N G Valikodath, D. Reine & P Setabru
Purpose: To describe and evaluate a novel technique for eyelid margin repair without the use of marginal sutures.
Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent primary repair of full-thickness lid margin defects using the described technique between March 2013 and May 2019 was performed. Clinical data such as indication for repair as well as size of defect was analyzed. The primary outcome measures included presence or absence of lid notching and post-operative complications such as wound dehiscence, infection, eyelid malposition, and keratopathy. Descriptive statistics were used.
Results: A total of 31 cases were identified. Five were excluded in post-operative analysis for follow-up of less than 2 weeks. The average age was 59.6 years (range 22–88) and 54.8% of patients were female. Average follow up in post-operative analysis group was 17.0 weeks (range 2 weeks to 42 months). Average defect size was 5.77 mm (range 2–12 mm). Reasons for repair were resection of eyelid lesion in 25/31 (80.6%), floppy eyelid in 4/31 (12.9%), trauma in 1/31 (3.2%), and trichiasis in 1/31 (3.2%). Post-operative eyelid notching was noted in 2/26 patients (7.7%), and there were no instances of wound dehiscence, infection, eyelid malposition, or keratopathy noted.
Conclusions: Our technique for full-thickness eyelid margin repair without the use of marginal sutures successfully repairs defects up to 12 mm for various indications. We observed comparable cosmetic outcomes to previously described techniques as well as a low rate of complications using our technique.
Clara J. Men, Audrey C. Ko, Lilangi S. Ediriwickrema, Catherine Y. Liu, Don O. Kikkawa & Bobby S. Korna
Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of primary eyelid and canalicular laceration repair using a self-retaining bicanalicular hydrophilic nasolacrimal stent.
Methods: This study is a retrospective review of seven patients with canalicular laceration primarily repaired with a self-retaining bicanalicular nasolacrimal stent within 72 hours of initial injury. After lacrimal intubation, repair was performed by reapproximation of the lacerated tissues. Data collection included ophthalmic examination, mechanism of injury, involvement of upper/lower/common canaliculi, symptoms of epiphora, operative time, stent extrusion and canalicular irrigation.
Results: Seven patients with monocanalicular laceration were repaired using the self-retaining bicanalicular nasolacrimal stent. The stent was left in place an average of 5 months. The average operative time was 29.3 minutes. None of the stents extruded prior to removal. After 5 months, the stent was removed successfully without difficulty. All patients reported subjective improvement in epiphora, with complete resolution of symptoms. Anatomic success was confirmed with irrigation in all cases. There were no complications associated with usage of the self-retaining bicanalicular nasolacrimal stent.
Conclusions: Primary repair of canalicular lacerations can be successfully performed with a self-retaining bicanalicular nasolacrimal stent. This stent has several advantages, including potentially faster operative times, no need for intranasal fixation or retrieval, easier intubation in the lacrimal system, and improved anatomic reapproximation of lacerated tissues.
Tamer I. Gawdat & Mostafa M. Diab
Purpose: To report the outcomes of a transcutaneous surgical technique for orbital volume augmentation with secondary alloplastic implants in acquired anophthalmia.
Methods: Retrospective case note review of patients who underwent secondary orbital implant insertion through a subciliary incision between January 2006 and December 2017. Collected data included age, gender, type and cause of primary surgery, time interval before secondary implantation, and details of secondary implantation surgery. The main outcome parameters included postoperative appearance, grade of superior sulcus deformity (SSD), implant centration, and prosthesis function.
Results: Thirty-eight patients ranging from 2 to 54 years had undergone secondary alloplastic orbital implant placement through the subciliary approach. The mean follow-up was 5.3 years (range: 1–10 years). All the patients showed satisfactory orbital volume with the average SSD was grade 0.74. There were no cases with implant exposure or extrusion. Implant migration occurred in six cases (15.8%). Fitting a prosthesis was possible in all cases.
Conclusion: Subciliary secondary orbital implantation is proved to be effective in correcting volume deficiency in acquired anophthalmia with rapid rehabilitation while avoiding anterior surface breakdown and implant exposure.
Arpita Nayak, Mohammad Javed Ali, Devjyoti Tripathy, Samir Mohapatra, Oshin Bansal & Suryasnata Rath
Purpose: To study the clinical profile and outcomes in adults with lacrimal sac mucoceles.
Methods: A retrospective, interventional study on consecutive adult patients with lacrimal sac mucoceles who underwent dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR)/dacryocystectomy surgery. Primary outcome measure was subsidence of lacrimal sac swelling after intervention. Secondary outcome measure was anatomical patency of the lacrimal system.
Results: A total of 70 patients were studied, mean age of the group being 49.2 ± 13.5 years. Majority of the patients were female (n = 49; 70%) and all had unilateral disease. An appreciable number (n = 14; 20%) presented with acute dacryocystitis of which 6(8%) developed a lacrimal sac fistula. Encystment of the lacrimal sac mucocele was seen in 47 (67%) patients, 3(4%) developed preseptal cellulitis and 3(4%) needed imaging. Resolution of sac swelling after intervention was seen in 70 (100%) patients. Definitive management was DCR in 57 (81%) patients, of which anatomical patency was achieved in 55 (96%) patients, mean duration of follow up of the group being 138 ± 70.2 days. A trend to prefer adjuvants like Mitomycin-C and/or intubation was noted in 56 (98%) of patients.
Conclusions: Adult lacrimal sac mucocele is more commonly seen in females and unilaterally. Complications of this entity include encysted mucocele (67%), acute dacryocystitis (20%), lacrimal sac fistula (8%), and preseptal cellulitis (4%). It is essentially a clinical diagnosis and favourable outcomes are seen with DCR surgery.