Understanding Uveal Melanoma Metastasis to the Liver: The Zimmerman Effect and the Zimmerman Hypothesis
Hans E. GrossniklausRead More
During the 1970s, it became evident that a substantial number of persons with uveal melanoma died of metastases, primarily to the liver, after enucleation of the eye containing the melanoma. Data from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology showed that the mortality rate peaked at approximately 2 to 3 years after surgical enucleation. In 1978, when Zimmerman et al1 of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology published these findings, they hypothesized that the act of enucleation may have contributed to liberation of tumor cells into the systemic circulation.