Lauren A. Dalvin, David Ancona-Lezama, J. Antonio Lucio-Alvarez, Babak Masoomian, Pascal Jabbour, Carol L. Shields
To assess risk factors for ophthalmic vascular events after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma.
Retrospective cohort study.
Patients who received unilateral IAC as primary treatment for retinoblastoma from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2017, at a single center.
Records were reviewed for patient demographics, tumor features, IAC parameters, and treatment-related vascular events in the early IAC era (2009–2011) compared with the recent era (2012–2017) using the t test and Fisher exact test. Change in event rates over time was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, with Spearman’s rho used to test correlation.
Main Outcome Measures
Rate of IAC-induced ophthalmic vascular events.
There were 243 chemotherapy infusions in 76 eyes of 76 patients, divided into early (22 eyes, 57 infusions) and recent (54 eyes, 186 infusions) eras. Intra-arterial chemotherapy consisted of melphalan (243 infusions), topotecan (124 infusions), and carboplatin (9 infusions). A comparison (early vs. recent era) revealed fewer mean number of infusions (2.6 vs. 3.4, P = 0.02) with similar mean patient age and presenting tumor features. Event rates decreased over time (P < 0.01), with fewer ophthalmic vascular events (early era vs. recent era) in the recent era (59% vs. 9% per eye, 23% vs. 3% per infusion, P < 0.01), including peripheral retinal nonperfusion (5% vs. 2% per eye, P = 0.50), vitreous hemorrhage (9% vs. 2%, P = 0.20), subretinal hemorrhage (0% vs. 2%, P = 0.99), branch retinal vein occlusion (5% vs. 0%, P = 0.29), choroidal ischemia (14% vs. 4%, P = 0.14), and ophthalmic artery spasm/occlusion (27% vs. 0%, P < 0.01). Events did not correlate to patient age (P = 0.75), tumor diameter (P = 0.32), tumor thickness (P = 0.59), or cumulative dosage of melphalan (P = 0.13) or topotecan (P = 0.59). There were no IAC-induced vascular events in 72 infusions of 21 consecutively treated eyes in 2016 to 2017.
Ophthalmic vascular events after IAC have decreased from the early era (2009–2011) through the current era (2012–2017) at this center. Experience performing this highly specialized procedure could be an important factor predicting IAC-related vascular events.