Purpose: To determine factors related to prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy (PAP) and its prevalence in glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) patients using prostaglandins analogs (PGAs).
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Methods: A study of glaucoma or OHT patients, using topical PGAs for at least 3 months, was performed. Eyes treated with PGAs were photographed and independently evaluated for PAP by 2 glaucoma specialists using at least 4 out of 7 clinical appearances. The factors of interest were sex, age, body mass index (BMI), types of glaucoma, types of PGAs, duration of PGA use, and concurrent 0.5% timolol. Univariate (Χ2 test) and multivariate (multiple logistic regression) analyses assessing risk factors for PAP were performed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: One hundred thirty-four eyes from 134 patients were included. Seventy (52.2%), 21 (15.7%), and 43 (32%) eyes received components of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, respectively. Prevalence of PAP was 44.8% (95% CI, 36.3 to 53.3). Older age >60 years (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 7.8), bimatoprost (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6 to 9.5), travoprost (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 10.1), and timolol (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.8) were at risk of PAP development. In addition, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7) was reversely associated with PAP.
Conclusions: Older age, bimatoprost, or travoprost were associated with PAP, whereas high BMI was found as a protective factor. Interestingly, timolol possibly precipitated periorbital change when in use with prostaglandins.